GENESIS 2:8 ~ Then the Lord God planted a garden in the East, in a place  named Eden. The Lord God put the man he made in that garden. = التكوين الفصل 2

8 وَغَرَسَ الرَّبُّ الالَهُ جَنَّةً فِي عَدْنٍ شَرْقا وَوَضَعَ هُنَاكَ ادَمَ الَّذِي جَبَلَهُ.

The Weld Prism is very close to the Biblical account of the first eras of man.  It lists Eridu [Eden]  twelve miles south of Ur, as the home of the first two kings in world history.  

GENESIS 2:10&14 ~ A river flowed from Eden and watered the garden. That river then separated and became four smaller rivers…. The name of the third river was Tigris. This river flowed east of Assyria. The fourth river was the Euphrates. = التكوين الفصل 2

10 وَكَانَ نَهْرٌ يَخْرُجُ مِنْ عَدْنٍ لِيَسْقِيَ الْجَنَّةَ وَمِنْ هُنَاكَ يَنْقَسِمُ فَيَصِيرُ ارْبَعَةَ رُؤُوسٍ:

14 وَاسْمُ النَّهْرِ الثَّالِثِ حِدَّاقِلُ. وَهُوَ الْجَارِي شَرْقِيَّ اشُّورَ. وَالنَّهْرُ الرَّابِعُ الْفُرَاتُ.






Eridu is where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers meet in today’s Iraq.   Excavations around Eridu reveal it was densely populated with evidences (engravings, etc.) of the earliest writings and drawings of mankind.

GENESIS 4:22 ~ Tubal-Cain was the father of people who work with bronze and iron = التكوين الفصل 4

22  وَصِلَّةُ ايْضا وَلَدَتْ تُوبَالَ قَايِينَ الضَّارِبَ كُلَّ الَةٍ مِنْ نُحَاسٍ وَحَدِيدٍ. وَاخْتُ تُوبَالَ قَايِينَ نَعْمَةُ.

Tubal-Cain was the seventh generation after Adam.  Until recently, the use of iron was thought to have been unknown prior to the 12th century BC, calling BC 1200 onward the Iron Age.  

Dr. H. E. Frankfort of the Oriental Institute discovered in the ruins of Asmar, some 100 miles northeast of Babylon, an iron blade made around 2700 BC.  Primitive inscriptions have revealed that Babylonia always used various metals.  Copper instruments have been found in the ruins of several pre-flood cities.  The Weld Prism, giving the ten kings who reigned before the flood says the 3rd, 5th, and 6th reigned at a place called Badgurgurru meaning “city of workers in bronze.”

GENESIS 7:1,13; 8:3-4 ~ Then the Lord said to Noah, “I have seen that you are a good man, even among the evil people of this time. So gather your family and all of you go into the boat …. The rain fell on the earth for 40 days and 40 nights. …. Rain stopped falling from the sky. And water stopped flowing from under the earth. The water that covered the earth began to go down and down. After 150 days, the water was low enough that the boat touched land again. The boat stopped on one of the mountains of Ararat. = التكوين الفصل 7  التكوين الفصل 8

1  وَقَالَ الرَّبُّ لِنُوحٍ: «ادْخُلْ انْتَ وَجَمِيعُ بَيْتِكَ الَى الْفُلْكِ لانِّي ايَّاكَ رَايْتُ بَارّا لَدَيَّ فِي هَذَا الْجِيلِ.

13 فِي ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ عَيْنِهِ دَخَلَ نُوحٌ وَسَامٌ وَحَامٌ وَيَافَثُ بَنُو نُوحٍ وَامْرَاةُ نُوحٍ وَثَلاثُ نِسَاءِ بَنِيهِ مَعَهُمْ الَى الْفُلْكِ.

3 وَرَجَعَتِ الْمِيَاهُ عَنِ الارْضِ رُجُوعا مُتَوَالِيا. وَبَعْدَ مِئَةٍ وَخَمْسِينَ يَوْما نَقَصَتِ الْمِيَاهُ
4 وَاسْتَقَرَّ الْفُلْكُ فِي الشَّهْرِ السَّابِعِ فِي الْيَوْمِ السَّابِعَ عَشَرَ مِنَ الشَّهْرِ عَلَى جِبَالِ ارَارَاطَ.


The Weld Prism and Nippur Tablets list kings during the earliest eras of mankind.  Then they say, “Then the Flood overthrew the land.”

Archaeologist George Smith of the British Museum found numerous tablets from the Library of Assur-Banipal at Nineveh dating back to the first dynasty of Ur about mid-way between the flood and Abraham.  Many of these ancient tablets repeatedly used the expressions such as “the flood, “the age before the flood”, “the inscriptions of the time before the flood.”

GENESIS 11:4, 8-9      Then the people said, “We should build a city for ourselves. And we should build a tower that will reach to the sky. We will be famous. {And this will keep us together.} We will not be scattered all over the earth.”… So the Lord caused the people to spread all over the earth. So the people did not finish building the city. That is the place where the Lord confused the language of the whole world. So that place is called Babel.  So the Lord caused the people to spread out from that place to all the other places on earth. = التكوين الفصل 11

4 وَقَالُوا: «هَلُمَّ نَبْنِ لانْفُسِنَا مَدِينَةً وَبُرْجا رَاسُهُ بِالسَّمَاءِ. وَنَصْنَعُ لانْفُسِنَا اسْما لِئَلَّا نَتَبَدَّدَ عَلَى وَجْهِ كُلِّ الارْضِ».

8 فَبَدَّدَهُمُ الرَّبُّ مِنْ هُنَاكَ عَلَى وَجْهِ كُلِّ الارْضِ فَكَفُّوا عَنْ بُنْيَانِ الْمَدِينَةِ
9 لِذَلِكَ دُعِيَ اسْمُهَا «بَابِلَ» لانَّ الرَّبَّ هُنَاكَ بَلْبَلَ لِسَانَ كُلِّ الارْضِ. وَمِنْ هُنَاكَ بَدَّدَهُمُ الرَّبُّ عَلَى وَجْهِ كُلِّ الارْضِ.


Model of Temple of Marduk near great tower of Babylon (based on ruins)

Archaeologist George Smith of the British Museum found an ancient tablet in ruins north of the Marduk Temple in central Babylon which read:  “The building of this illustrious tower offended the gods.  In a night they threw down what they had built.  They scattered them abroad and made strange their speech. Their progress they impeded. They wept hot tears for Babylon.”

GENESIS 14:1, 14-15 ~   Amraphel was the king of Shinar [Mesopotamia]….Lot, the son of
Abraham’s brother, was living in Sodom, and the enemy captured him….Abram learned 
that Lot was captured. So Abram called all of his family together. There were 318 trained soldiers. Abram led the men and chased the enemy all the way to the town of Dan. That night, he and his men made a surprise attack against the enemy. They defeated the enemy and chased them. = التكوين الفصل 14

1  وَحَدَثَ فِي ايَّامِ امْرَافَلَ مَلِكِ شِنْعَارَ وَارْيُوكَ مَلِكِ الَّاسَارَ وَكَدَرْلَعَوْمَرَ مَلِكِ عِيلامَ وَتِدْعَالَ مَلِكِ جُويِيمَ

14 فَلَمَّا سَمِعَ ابْرَامُ انَّ اخَاهُ سُبِيَ جَرَّ غِلْمَانَهُ الْمُتَمَرِّنِينَ وِلْدَانَ بَيْتِهِ ثَلاثَ مِئَةٍ وَثَمَانِيَةَ عَشَرَ وَتَبِعَهُمْ الَى دَانَ.
15 وَانْقَسَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ لَيْلا هُوَ وَعَبِيدُهُ فَكَسَّرَهُمْ وَتَبِعَهُمْ الَى حُوبَةَ الَّتِي عَنْ شَِمَالِ دِمَشْقَ.


King Amraphel is the Hebrew pronunciation of Hammurabi, the most famous of early Babylonian kings.  His celebrated Code of over 300 laws or “Code of Hammurabi” is on display at the Louvre in Paris.  Shinar refers to Mesopotamia.

GENESIS 14:8-9 ~ The king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (Zoar) joined together and went to fight against their enemies. {They went to fight} in the Valley of Siddim. They fought against Kedorlaomer the king of Elam, Tidal the king of Goiim, Amraphel the king of Shinar, and Arioch the king of Ellasar. So there were four kings fighting against five. = التكوين الفصل 14

8 فَخَرَجَ مَلِكُ سَدُومَ وَمَلِكُ عَمُورَةَ وَمَلِكُ ادْمَةَ وَمَلِكُ صَبُويِيمَ وَمَلِكُ بَالَعَ (الَّتِي هِيَ صُوغَرُ) وَنَظَمُوا حَرْبا مَعَهُمْ فِي عُمْقِ السِّدِّيمِ.
9 مَعَ كَدَرْلَعَوْمَرَ مَلِكِ عِيلامَ وَتِدْعَالَ مَلِكِ جُويِيمَ وَامْرَافَلَ مَلِكِ شِنْعَارَ وَارْيُوكَ مَلِكِ الَّاسَارَ. ارْبَعَةُ مُلُوكٍ عَلَى خَمْسَةٍ.


Site of Elba Tablets

The Ebla (now Tel Mardikh) excavations carried out in northern Syria, 60 km. south of Aleppo, under the archaeological control of the University of Rome La Sapienza, and directed by Paolo Matthiae, lead to important discoveries, bringing to light the Royal Archive.   This big archive contains 17.000 tablets written in cuneiform characters

Elba Tablet #1860 lists these Genesis kings: si-da-mu (Sodoma), e-ma-ra (Gomorra), ad-ma (Adma), si-ba-i-um (Zeboim), be-la (Tsoar o  [Zoar] )

GENESIS 13:10; 19:24-25 ~ Lot looked and saw the Jordan Valley. Lot saw that there was much water there. (This was before the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah. At that time the Jordan Valley all the way to Zoar was like the Lord’s Garden. At the same time, the Lord began to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah [near Dead Sea]. The Lord caused fire and burning sulfur to fall out of the sky from the Lord. So the Lord destroyed those cities. The Lord destroyed the whole valley— = التكوين الفصل 13  التكوين الفصل 19

10 فَرَفَعَ لُوطٌ عَيْنَيْهِ وَرَاى كُلَّ دَائِرَةِ الارْدُنِّ انَّ جَمِيعَهَا سَقْيٌ قَبْلَمَا اخْرَبَ الرَّبُّ سَدُومَ وَعَمُورَةَ كَجَنَّةِ الرَّبِّ كَارْضِ مِصْرَ. حِينَمَا تَجِيءُ الَى صُوغَرَ.

24  فَامْطَرَ الرَّبُّ عَلَى سَدُومَ وَعَمُورَةَ كِبْرِيتا وَنَارا مِنْ عِنْدِ الرَّبِّ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ.
25  وَقَلَبَ تِلْكَ الْمُدُنَ وَكُلَّ الدَّائِرَةِ وَجَمِيعَ سُكَّانِ الْمُدُنِ وَنَبَاتَِ الارْضِ.

Genesis-Bab Edh Dhra-Sodom

Tel edh-Dhra (Sodom)

Archaeologists W. F. Albright and M. G. Kyle discovered about 500 feet above the Dead Sea the remains of a great fortified enclosure and great quantities of potsherds, flint and other remains of a period dating between 2500 BC and 2000 BC.


Black stones (Brimstone) at
Tel edh-Dhra (Sodom)

There are vast are vast beds of flammable petroleum deposits on both sides of the Dead Sea.  Under Mt. Usdom at that location is a stratum of salt 150 feet thick mixed with sulfur.  An explosion of the petroleum and sulfur would blow up into the sky and then fall back down like rain.  The salt and free sulphur of this area, now a burned-out region of oil and asphalt, were apparently mingled by an earthquake, causing a violent explosion. Carried up into the air red-hot, the exploding salt and sulphur literally caused a rain of fire and brimstone over the whole plain

Sodom: Bab edh-Dhra (alt. Bub edh-Dhra), at Wadi Kerak. Remains of a stone fortress and city (including a large cemetery south of the city, 5/8 of a mile long and about half as wide. An estimated 20,000 shaft tombs would hold over half a million dead).

Gomorrah: Numeira. Located at the Wadi south of Bab edh-Dhra, Wadi Numeira.  Remains of another fortified city were found on a level top of a plain just south of the spring of Wadi Numeira.

Admah: Fiefa, located on the north side of Wadi Feifa. Remains of a walled city and a tower. (Noted similarities of pottery found here with Bab edh-Dhra). Discovered a burial ground which perhaps rivals Bab edh-Dhra in size and usage.

Zeboiim: Khanazir. Located on the northern side of the Wadi Khanazir.  It holds common characteristics with the other four sites, excluding only the large graveyard.

Zoar: es-Safi. Located overlooking Wadi Hesa, between Numeira and Fiefa, also with a large graveyard similar to that of Bab edh-Dhra and Feifa. (Noted similarities of pottery found here with Bab edh-Dhra)

A burn (ash) layer was found in regards to the destruction of all five cities, showing final destruction from the top down, especially including the associated massive graveyard at Bab edh-Dhra.  The severity of the burning of the cities is shown from the


Genesis-BabEdhdra-7 ft of dark ash

excavation at Numeira (Gomorrah), where a dug pit cut through seven feet of dark ash. Additionally, all the cities (except Zoar) were destroyed at the same time, also consistent with a regional destruction. All of the cities date to the same era and were built on a piece of ground overlooking a Wadi (dry river bed) entering the southern Dead Sea plain.

GENESIS 12:6 ~ Abram traveled through the land of Canaan as far as the town of Shechem and then went to the big tree at Moreh. The Canaanite people lived in that place at this time. = التكوين الفصل 12

6 وَاجْتَازَ ابْرَامُ فِي الارْضِ الَى مَكَانِ شَكِيمَ الَى بَلُّوطَةِ مُورَةَ. وَكَانَ الْكَنْعَانِيُّونَ حِينَئِذٍ فِي الارْضِ.

GENESIS 13:3 ~ Abram continued traveling around. He left the Negev and went back to Bethel. He went to the place between the city of Bethel and the city of Ai. =  التكوين الفصل 13
3 وَسَارَ فِي رِحْلاتِهِ مِنَ الْجَنُوبِ الَى بَيْتِ ايلَ الَى الْمَكَانِ الَّذِي كَانَتْ خَيْمَتُهُ فِيهِ فِي الْبَدَاءَةِ بَيْنَ بَيْتِ ايلَ وَعَايَ

GENESIS 14:18 ~ Melchizedek, the king of [Jeru]Salem, also went to meet Abram. = التكوين الفصل 14
18  وَمَلْكِي صَادِقُ مَلِكُ شَالِيمَ اخْرَجَ خُبْزا وَخَمْرا. وَكَانَ كَاهِنا لِلَّهِ الْعَلِيِّ.

GENESIS 20:1 ~ Abraham left that place and traveled to the Negev…. settled in the city of 
Gerar. = لتكوين الفصل 20
1  وَانْتَقَلَ ابْرَاهِيمُ مِنْ هُنَاكَ الَى ارْضِ الْجَنُوبِ وَسَكَنَ بَيْنَ قَادِشَ وَشُورَ وَتَغَرَّبَ فِي جَرَارَ.

GENESIS 37:17 ~ So Joseph followed his brothers and found them in Dothan. = التكوين الفصل 37
17 فَقَالَ الرَّجُلُ: «قَدِ ارْتَحَلُوا مِنْ هُنَا لانِّي سَمِعْتُهُمْ يَقُولُونَ: لِنَذْهَبْ الَى دُوثَان»َ. فَذَهَبَ يُوسُفُ وَرَاءَ اخْوَتِهِ فَوَجَدَهُمْ فِي دُوثَانَ.


Genesis-Tel Dothan

Archaeologists Albright and Garstang, searching through the ruins of these cities (Shechem, Bethel, Ai, Jerusalem, Gerar, Dothan) have found shards and other evidences that these cities actually existed around 2000 BC.

GENESIS 39:1-2  ~ The traders who bought Joseph took him down to Egypt. They sold him to the captain of Pharaoh’s guard, Potiphar. But the Lord helped Joseph. Joseph became a successful man. Joseph lived in the house of his master, Potiphar the Egyptian. = التكوين الفصل 39

1  وَامَّا يُوسُفُ فَانْزِلَ الَى مِصْرَ وَاشْتَرَاهُ فُوطِيفَارُ خَصِيُّ فِرْعَوْنَ رَئِيسُ الشُّرَطِ رَجُلٌ مِصْرِيٌّ مِنْ يَدِ الاسْمَاعِيلِيِّينَ الَّذِينَ انْزَلُوهُ الَى هُنَاكَ.
2 وَكَانَ الرَّبُّ مَعَ يُوسُفَ فَكَانَ رَجُلا نَاجِحا. وَكَانَ فِي بَيْتِ سَيِّدِهِ الْمِصْرِيِّ.

Genesis-Sensursret II-CataloguedCopenhagenMuseum.jpg

PHARAOH SENUSRET II Catalogyued at Museum of Copenghagen

The kings during the enslavement and rise to power of Joseph and eventual arrival of his family and their enslavement would be Senusret II, (1894-1878 BC) and Senusret III (1878-1841 BC), Joseph’s career as an Egyptian governmental official would thus begin under Senusret II and would continue into the reign of Senusret III.  Amenemhet III became Pharaoh when Joseph was in his 70s. To figure years of events and reigns, go here.

Genesis-Sensusret III


Joseph arrived at Egypt at age 17 (Genesis 37:2), was 30 at the beginning of the famine (Genesis 41:46) lived 71 years after his family came to Egypt and died at age 110 (Genesis 50:26). This means that he died about 1807 BC, during the reign of Amenemhet III (1841-1797).

GENESIS 41:45  ~ Pharaoh gave Joseph another name, Zaphenath Paneah.  Pharaoh also gave Joseph a wife named Asenath. She was the daughter of Potiphera, a priest in the city of ON.  So Joseph became the governor over the whole country of Egypt. = التكوين الفصل 41

46 وَكَانَ يُوسُفُ ابْنَ ثَلاثِينَ سَنَةً لَمَّا وَقَفَ قُدَّامَ فِرْعَوْنَ مَلِكِ مِصْرَ. فَخَرَجَ يُوسُفُ مِنْ لَدُنْ فِرْعَوْنَ وَاجْتَازَ فِي كُلِّ ارْضِ مِصْرَ.

Archaeologist Sir Flanders Petrie in the 1800s discovered ruins of a palace on the site of ON (Heliopolis) dated to the time of Joseph..  Heliopolis, the City of the Sun, at one time possessed more monuments than Thebes.  Today, a single obelisk in an enclosure just by the suburb of Matariya (northwest of the Cairo International Airport) marks the ruins of Heliopolis north of the modern suburb known also known as Heliopolis.

GENESIS: 41:54, 56 ~ And the seven years of hunger began, just like Joseph had said.  No food grew anywhere in any of the countries in that area.  There was famine everywhere, so Joseph gave the people grain from the warehouses. Joseph sold the stored grain to the people of Egypt. The famine was bad in Egypt.     = التكوين الفصل 41

54 وَابْتَدَاتْ سَبْعُ سِنِي الْجُوعِ تَاتِي كَمَا قَالَ يُوسُفُ فَكَانَ جُوعٌ فِي جَمِيعِ الْبُلْدَانِ. وَامَّا جَمِيعُ ارْضِ مِصْرَ فَكَانَ فِيهَا خُبْزٌ.

56 وَكَانَ الْجُوعُ عَلَى كُلِّ وَجْهِ الارْضِ. وَفَتَحَ يُوسُفُ جَمِيعَ مَا فِيهِ طَعَامٌ وَبَاعَ لِلْمِصْرِيِّينَ. وَاشْتَدَّ الْجُوعُ فِي ارْضِ مِصْرَ.


All that is left of ancient ON (Heliopolis)

Archaeologist and historian Brugsch found at the tomb of Baba of El-Kab an inscription made at the time of Joseph reading:  “When a famine arose lasting many years, I distributed corn to the city each year of the famine.”  Brugsch explained, “Since famines in Egypt are of the greatest rarity….and since Baba lived about the same time as Joseph, there remains but one fair inference:  that the “many years of famine” are the seven years of famine.
Genesis-Amenemhet III-Berlin
AMENEMHET III in Berlin, Germany
Hathor was the cow-headed love goddess of Egypt.  Other gods of Egypt associated with cattle were Ptah (Apis) and Amon.  Great cemeteries of embalmed cattle have been excavated.  The symbol of the bull was the symbol of Pharaoh himself.  

Exodus-GodHathor-cow headed

Hathor, Cow-headed goddess of sexuality
EXODUS 7:20-21 ~ Moses and Aaron did just as the Lord had commanded. He raised his staff in the presence of Pharaoh and his officials and struck the water of the Nile, and all the water was changed into blood. The fish in the Nile died, and the river smelled so bad that the Egyptians could not drink its water. Blood was everywhere in Egypt. = لخروج الفصل 7
20 فَفَعَلَ مُوسَى وَهَارُونُ هَكَذَا كَمَا امَرَ الرَّبُّ. رَفَعَ الْعَصَا وَضَرَبَ الْمَاءَ الَّذِي فِي النَّهْرِ امَامَ عَيْنَيْ فِرْعَوْنَ وَامَامَ عُيُونِ عَبِيدِهِ فَتَحَوَّلَ كُلُّ الْمَاءِ الَّذِي فِي النَّهْرِ دَما.
21 وَمَاتَ السَّمَكُ الَّذِي فِي النَّهْرِ وَانْتَنَ النَّهْرُ فَلَمْ يَقْدِرِ الْمِصْرِيُّونَ انْ يَشْرَبُوا مَاءً مِنَ النَّهْرِ. وَكَانَ الدَّمُ فِي كُلِّ ارْضِ مِصْرَ

Exodus-CrocodileHead of Sobek, god of Nile

                                           SOBEK, Crocodile-headed god of the Nile

EXODUS 8:3 ~ The Nile will teem with frogs. They will come up into your palace and your bedroom and onto your bed, into the houses of your officials and on your people, and into your ovens and kneading troughs. = لخروج الفصل 8

3  فَيَفِيضُ النَّهْرُ ضَفَادِعَ. فَتَصْعَدُ وَتَدْخُلُ الَى بَيْتِكَ وَالَى مِخْدَعِ فِرَاشِكَ وَعَلَى سَرِيرِكَ وَالَى بُيُوتِ عَبِيدِكَ وَعَلَى شَعْبِكَ وَالَى تَنَانِيرِكَ وَالَى مَعَاجِنِكَ.

Exodus-Heqet,FrogGoddess at Dendera Temple

Heqet, Frog goddess at Dendera Temple


EXODUS 8:24 ~ Thick swarms of flies poured into Pharaoh’s palace and into the houses of his officials. Throughout Egypt the land was ruined by swarms of flies. = لخروج الفصل 8

24 فَفَعَلَ الرَّبُّ هَكَذَا. فَدَخَلَتْ ذُبَّانٌ كَثِيرَةٌ الَى بَيْتِ فِرْعَوْنَ وَبُيُوتِ عَبِيدِهِ. وَفِي كُلِّ ارْضِ مِصْرَ خَرِبَتِ الارْضُ مِنَ الذُّبَّانِ.

The original manuscripts only said swarms.  Dung Beatles sometimes swarm in Egypt.  


Khepher, God of the Dung Beetle

EXODUS 9:9 ~ This will become dust that will go throughout the land of Egypt. Whenever the dust touches a person or an animal in Egypt, boils (sores) will break out on the skin. = لخروج الفصل 9

9  لِيَصِيرَ غُبَارا عَلَى كُلِّ ارْضِ مِصْرَ. فَيَصِيرَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَعَلَى الْبَهَائِمِ دَمَامِلَ طَالِعَةً بِبُثُورٍ فِي كُلِّ ارْضِ مِصْرَ».


Im-Hotep was the Egyptian god of healing.  The goddess Sekhmet was also known for her healing powers.


EXODUS 9:6: ~ All the livestock of the Egyptians died, but not one animal belonging to the Israelites died. Pharaoh sent officials and found that none of the livestock of the Israelites had died. = لخروج الفصل 9

6  فَفَعَلَ الرَّبُّ هَذَا الامْرَ فِي الْغَدِ. فَمَاتَتْ جَمِيعُ مَوَاشِي الْمِصْرِيِّينَ. وَامَّا مَوَاشِي بَنِي اسْرَائِيلَ فَلَمْ يَمُتْ مِنْهَا وَاحِدٌ.

Exodus-Ptah-ApisBull-Brooklyn Museum

Ptah-Apis, Bull God, Brooklyn Museum

EXODUS 9:24-26 ~ The hail was falling. And there was lightning flashing all through it. It was the worst hailstorm that had ever hit Egypt since it had been a nation. The hail destroyed people, animals, and plants. The hail also broke all the trees in the fields. The only place that did not get hail was the land of Goshen, where the people of Israel lived. = لخروج الفصل 9

24 فَكَانَ بَرَدٌ وَنَارٌ مُتَوَاصِلَةٌ فِي وَسَطِ الْبَرَدِ. شَيْءٌ عَظِيمٌ جِدّا لَمْ يَكُنْ مِثْلُهُ فِي كُلِّ ارْضِ مِصْرَ مُنْذُ صَارَتْ امَّةً!
25 فَضَرَبَ الْبَرَدُ فِي كُلِّ ارْضِ مِصْرَ جَمِيعَ مَا فِي الْحَقْلِ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَالْبَهَائِمِ. وَضَرَبَ الْبَرَدُ جَمِيعَ عُشْبِ الْحَقْلِ وَكَسَّرَ جَمِيعَ شَجَرِ الْحَقْلِ
26 الا ارْضَ جَاسَانَ حَيْثُ كَانَ بَنُو اسْرَائِيلَ فَلَمْ يَكُنْ فِيهَا بَرَدٌ.

Exodus-Nut, goddess of sky
Nut, Goddess of the Sky

Nut was the sky goddess of Egypt and mother of the sun-god.   She is usually depicted on all fours with the earth under her.
Set, god of Fire, on Temple of Horus
EXODUS 10:15 ~ The locusts ate every plant on the ground and all of the fruit in the trees that the hail had not destroyed. There weren’t any leaves left on any of the trees or plants anywhere in Egypt. = لخروج الفصل 10
15  وَغَطَّى وَجْهَ كُلِّ الارْضِ حَتَّى اظْلَمَتِ الارْضُ. وَاكَلَ جَمِيعَ عُشْبِ الارْضِ وَجَمِيعَ ثَمَرِ الشَّجَرِ الَّذِي تَرَكَهُ الْبَرَدُ حَتَّى لَمْ يَبْقَ شَيْءٌ اخْضَرُ فِي الشَّجَرِ وَلا فِي عُشْبِ الْحَقْلِ فِي كُلِّ ارْضِ مِصْرَ».

Exodus-Osiris-God of agriculture, Harvardmuseum
Osiris, god of fertility, agriculture, vegetation, and life-death at Harvard Museum 


EXODUS 10:22-23 ~ So Moses raised his arm into the air and a cloud of darkness covered Egypt. The darkness stayed in Egypt for three days.  None of the people could see each other. And no one got up to go any place for three days. But there was light in all the places where the people of Israel lived. = لخروج الفصل 10

22 فَمَدَّ مُوسَى يَدَهُ نَحْوَ السَّمَاءِ فَكَانَ ظَلامٌ دَامِسٌ فِي كُلِّ ارْضِ مِصْرَ ثَلاثَةَ ايَّامٍ.
23 لَمْ يُبْصِرْ احَدٌ اخَاهُ وَلا قَامَ احَدٌ مِنْ مَكَانِهِ ثَلاثَةَ ايَّامٍ. وَلَكِنْ جَمِيعُ بَنِي اسْرَائِيلَ كَانَ لَهُمْ نُورٌ فِي مَسَاكِنِهِمْ!

Amen-Ra Temple, Karnak, Egypt
Temple of Amon-Ra, at Karnak, Egypt

Amon-Ra ~ god of the sun ~ was the principle deity of all the gods of Egypt.  Pharaoh called himself “son of the sun.” With three days of darkness, the principle deity was scorned.Papyrus 9:11 – The land is not light….

EXODUS 11:4 & 12:31~ Moses said {to the people}, “The Lord says, ‘At midnight tonight, I will go through Egypt, and every firstborn son in Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh, the ruler of Egypt, to the firstborn son of the slave  girl grinding grain…So that night, Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron. Pharaoh said to them, “Get up and leave my people. You and your people can do as you say. Go and worship the Lord! = لخروج الفصل 11  لخروج الفصل 12

4  وَقَالَ مُوسَى: «هَكَذَا يَقُولُ الرَّبُّ انِّي نَحْوَ نِصْفِ اللَّيْلِ اخْرُجُ فِي وَسَطِ مِصْرَ

31 فَدَعَا مُوسَى وَهَارُونَ لَيْلا وَقَالَ: «قُومُوا اخْرُجُوا مِنْ بَيْنِ شَعْبِي انْتُمَا وَبَنُو اسْرَائِيلَ جَمِيعا وَاذْهَبُوا اعْبُدُوا الرَّبَّ كَمَا تَكَلَّمْتُمْ.

Papyrus 4:3, 5:6, 6:12 – Forsooth, the children of princes are dashed against the walls.
Forsooth, the children of princes are cast out in the streets.

Exodus-Tut-Mosis III-1457 BC smiling at enemies at Megiddo

Pharoah Thut-Mosis III, smiling at his enemies at battle of Megiddo

Pharoah Thut-mosis III had a first-born son named Amenemhat who was named “the king’s eldest son” and overseer of the cattle of Amun in the 24th year of Thut-mosis’ reign.  However, between this 24th year and the 35th year of his reign, Pharaoh’s eldest son, Amenemhat, died.  So his half-brother, Amenhotep II was named heir-apparent of the throne.
Exodus-Amenhotep II-Warrior Pharaoh
Amenotep II, Warrior Pharaoh


1504 BC Thut-mosis II died & son Thut-mosis III became Pharaoh, but too young to rule (age 1)

1483 BC Queen Mother, Hatshepsut, ruled for her son for about 21 years until she died

1480 BC Thut-mosis III turned from a military campaign he launched 2 months after his mother died and actually began to rule.  He was a great warrior & expansionist king.

1445 BC Moses led Israelites out of Egypt &   Pharaoh Thut-mosis III’s oldest son died in 35th year of his actual rule, the year 1445 BC



NUMBERS 21:29 ~ It is bad for you, Moab.  You lost [god] Chemosh’s people.  His sons ran away.  His daughters were taken prisoners by Sihon, king of the Amorites. = العدد الفصل 21

29 وَيْلٌ لكَ يَا مُوآبُ. هَلكْتِ يَا أُمَّةَ كَمُوشَ. قَدْ صَيَّرَ بَنِيهِ هَارِبِينَ وَبَنَاتِهِ فِي السَّبْيِ لِمَلِكِ الأَمُورِيِّينَ سِيحُونَ.

NUMBERS 21:30 ~ But we defeated those Amorites.  We destroyed their towns from Heshbon tDibon, from Nashim to Nophah, near Medeba. = العدد الفصل 21

30 لكِنْ قَدْ رَمَيْنَاهُمْ. هَلكَتْ حَشْبُونُ إِلى دِيبُونَ. وَأَخْرَبْنَا إِلى نُوفَحَ التِي إِلى مَيْدَبَا».

The Moabite Stone verifies that the god of the Moabites was Chemosh and that there was a city in Moab named Dibon.



Moabite Stone

“I Mesha, son of [god] Chemosh, Mesha’s king, the Dibonite. My father governed Moab for 30 years, then I reigned after my father. I made a high place for [god] Chemosh in Qarhoh,”

This monument was found by a German missionary in 1898, lying on the ground near the Arnon River in the ancient city of Dibon. Recorded on the stone are victories over the Israelites by Mesha, king of Moab.

Human sacrifice was part of the rites of Chemosh.  This practice was not unique to the Moabites, as such rites were commonplace in the various Canaanite religious cults, including those of the Baals and of Moloch.

NUMBERS 22:4-5; 23:5 ~ The {king of} Moab said to the leaders of Midian, “This large group of people will destroy everything around us, the way a cow eats all the grass in a field.” Balak son of  Zippor was the king of Moab at this time. He sent some men to call Balaam son of Beor. Balaam was at Pethor, near the Euphrates River. This was where Balaam’s people lived…. Then the Lord told Balaam what he should say. = العدد الفصل 22  العدد الفصل 23

4  فَقَال مُوآبُ لِشُيُوخِ مِدْيَانَ: «الآنَ يَلحَسُ الجُمْهُورُ كُل مَا حَوْلنَا كَمَا يَلحَسُ الثَّوْرُ خُضْرَةَ الحَقْلِ». وَكَانَ بَالاقُ بْنُ صِفُّورَ مَلِكاً لِمُوآبَ فِي ذَلِكَ الزَّمَانِ.
5  فَأَرْسَل رُسُلاً إِلى بَلعَامَ بْنِ بَعُورَ إِلى فَتُورَ التِي عَلى النَّهْرِ فِي أَرْضِ بَنِي شَعْبِهِ لِيَدْعُوَهُ قَائِلاً: «هُوَذَا شَعْبٌ

5  فَوَضَعَ الرَّبُّ كَلاماً فِي فَمِ بَلعَامَ وَقَال: «ارْجِعْ إِلى بَالاقَ وَتَكَلمْ هَكَذَا».



Stela authored by Shalmaneser III regarding PITRU (Pethor)
Pethor, a Mesopotamian city, is identified with Pitru of Assyrian texts, located 12 miles south of Carchemish.  Balaam was a diviner-prophet.  Tell Aushariye is located close to the confluence of the Sajour and Euphrates rivers.  Aushariye hides the ruins of ancient Pitru.  A stela with an Assyrian inscription, authored by Shalmaneser III supports this.
Numbers-Deir 'Alla Balaam Inscription


Plaster wall inscriptions of BALAAM

An ancient text found at Deir Alla, Jordan tells about the activities of a prophet named Balaam.  The remarkable text found at Deir Alla consists of 119 fragments of plaster inscribed with black and red ink. It was among the rubble of a building destroyed in an earthquake. It seems to have been one long column with at least 50 lines, displayed on a plastered wall.  Written in Aramaic, the text begins with the title “Warnings from the Book of Balaam the son of Beor.”