ISAIAH 7:1 ~ Rezin was the king of Aram [Syria], Pekah… was the king of Israel. During the time Ahaz was king of Judah, Rezin and Pekah went up to Jerusalem to fight against it. But they were not able to defeat the city. = أشعياء الفصل 7

1  وَحَدَثَ فِي أَيَّامِ آحَازَ بْنِ يُوثَامَ بْنِ عُزِّيَّا مَلِكِ يَهُوذَا أَنَّ رَصِينَ مَلِكَ أَرَامَ صَعِدَ مَعَ فَقْحَ بْنِ رَمَلْيَا مَلِكِ إِسْرَائِيلَ إِلَى أُورُشَلِيمَ لِمُحَارَبَتِهَا فَلَمْ يَقْدِرْ أَنْ يُحَارِبَهَا.

Ahaz was king of Judah 741-726 BC.  Pekah was king of Israel 748-730 BC.  About 738 BC, Tiglath-Pilesar, King of Assyria, declared on one of his palace reliefs, now in possession of the British Museum in London:

Related image

Panels from walls of Tiglath-Pileser’s palace.

“I received the tribute of…Rezin, the Damascene, Menahem, the Samarian, Hiram, the Tyrian.”  {COS 2, 285, 2.117A – Calah Annals}

Later he wrote this in his Calah Annals:

“Rezin the Damascene…With the blood of his warriors I dyed a reddish hue the river….That one (Rezin) in order to save his life, fled alone; and he entered the gate of his city like a mongoose. I impaled alive his chief ministers….I confined him like a bird in a cage. His gardens…orchards without number I cut down; I did not leave a single one.  [16] districts of Bit-Humri (Israel) I leveled to the ground.” (COS 2, 286, 2.117A)

Fortress built over Kir

ISAIAH 15:1; 16:7, 11 ~ This is a sad message about Moab….One night, armies took the wealth from Kir, Moab. That night, the city was destroyed…. = أشعياء الفصل 15 – أشعياء الفصل 16

1  وَحْيٌ مِنْ جِهَةِ مُوآبَ: «إِنَّهُ فِي لَيْلَةٍ خَرِبَتْ «عَارُ» مُوآبَ وَهَلَكَتْ. إِنَّهُ فِي لَيْلَةٍ خَرِبَتْ «قِيرُ» مُوآبَ وَهَلَكَتْ.

7  لِذَلِكَ تُوَلْوِلُ مُوآبُ. عَلَى مُوآبَ كُلُّهَا يُوَلْوِلُ. تَئِنُّونَ عَلَى أُسُسِ قِيرَ حَارِسَةَ. إِنَّمَا هِيَ مَضْرُوبَةٌ.

11  لِذَلِكَ تَرِنُّ أَحْشَائِي كَعُودٍ مِنْ أَجْلِ مُوآبَ وَبَطْنِي مِنْ أَجْلِ قِيرَ حَارِسَ.

The city of Kir was the capital city of Moab.  It was also called Kir-Hereseth and Hereseth.  It was on top of an isolated hill with a clear view of all directions.  In 1140, the crusaders built a fortress on the ruins of Kir, and it is still there, as pictured.  It is now part of the modern city of Kerak.

ISAIAH 15:2a ~ The king’s family and the people of Dibon are going to the places of worship to cry. = أشعياء الفصل 15

2  إِلَى الْبَيْتِ وَدِيبُونَ يَصْعَدُونَ إِلَى الْمُرْتَفَعَاتِ لِلْبُكَاءِ. تُوَلْوِلُ مُوآبُ عَلَى نَبُو وَعَلَى مَيْدِبَا. فِي كُلِّ رَأْسٍ مِنْهَا قَرْعَةٌ. كُلُّ لِحْيَةٍ مَجْزُوزَةٌ.

Dibon ruins


Dibon was the capital city of Moab.  The modern city of Dhiban is next to the ruins of ancient Dibon.  Dibon might be the town “Tpn” or “Tbn” found in Egyptian writings during the reigns of Thutmoses III, Amenhotep III, and Rameses II.  It is mentioned in the Mesha Stone, also called the Moabite Stone.

1) I Mesha, son of Chemosh, Mesha’s king, the
2) Dibonite. My father governed Moab for 30 years, then I reigned
3) after my father. I made a high place for Chemosh in Qarhoh,
4) for he protected me from all the kings and caused me to triumph over all my enemies.

20) I took with me two hundred men from Moab, all chief warriors, and sent them to Jahaz; and I 
21) added it to Dibon. I constructed Qarhoh with the wall of the forest and the wall
22) of the acropolis; along with its gates and towers.
23) I built the 
house of the king; and its water reservoirs for inside
24) the city; for there was no water inside the town of Qarhoh, so I said to the residents: “Make for yourself
25) a cistern in every house”; I cut trees for use in Qarhoh with the prisoners
28) And the men of 
Dibon were loyal to my rule. And I reigned
29) over hundreds of villages which I added to my country.

ISAIAH 15:2b ~ The people of Moab are crying for Nebo and Medeba. = أشعياء الفصل 15

2  إِلَى الْبَيْتِ وَدِيبُونَ يَصْعَدُونَ إِلَى الْمُرْتَفَعَاتِ لِلْبُكَاءِ. تُوَلْوِلُ مُوآبُ عَلَى نَبُو وَعَلَى مَيْدِبَا. فِي كُلِّ رَأْسٍ مِنْهَا قَرْعَةٌ. كُلُّ لِحْيَةٍ مَجْزُوزَةٌ.


Medeba was about 6 miles southeast of Mount Nebo where Moses died and was buried. Its border was the Arnon River.  Sometimes Israel claimed it and sometimes Moab claimed it.

Both Nebo and Medeba are mentioned in the Mesha Stone, also called the Moabite stone, on lines 7, 14 and 30:

Moabite Stone

Moabite Stone

7) but I triumphed over his house. And Israel has passed away forever. Omri occupied Medeba’s land.
14) And Chemosh said to me: “Go! Bring 
Nebo against Israel.”
15) So I went by night and fought from sunrise until noon.
16) taking it and slaying all 7,000 men, boys, women, girls,
17) and maidservants, because I dedicated them to Ashtar-Chemosh.
29) over hundreds of villages which I added to my country. I built
 the temple of Medeba and the temple of Diblaten and the temple of Baal-meon

ISAIAH 15:5 ~ My heart cries with sorrow for Moab.  People are running for safety. They run far away to Zoar….The people are crying very loudly as they walk on the road to Horonaim. = أشعياء الفصل 15

5  يَصْرُخُ قَلْبِي مِنْ أَجْلِ مُوآبَ. الْهَارِبِينَ مِنْهَا إِلَى صُوغَرَ كَعِجْلَةٍ ثُلاَثِيَّةٍ لأَنَّهُمْ يَصْعَدُونَ فِي «عَقَبَةِ اللُّوحِيثِ» بِالْبُكَاءِ لأَنَّهُمْ فِي طَرِيقِ حُورُونَايِمَ يَرْفَعُونَ صُرَاخَ الاِنْكِسَارِ.

Horonaim is also known as Horonan located in Moab (today’s Jordan).

Kings of Israel and Judah fought against king Mesha of Moab around 850 B.C.  King Mesha’s account of the wars is in the Mesha Stele, also called the Moabite Stone.   (lines 31 and 32).

31) [. . .] sheep of the land. While the house of David inhabited Horonaim.
32) [. . .] and Chemosh said to me: “Go down! Attack Horonaim.” So I advanced against it
33) Chemosh reestablished it in my days.

Image result for horonaim

Ruins of Horonaim

ISAIAH 16:14 ~ Moab many times….And now the Lord says, “In three years (the way a hired helper counts time) all those people [of Moab] and the things they are proud of will be gone. There will be a few people left, but there will not be many.” = أشعياء الفصل 16 – 
14  وَالآنَ تَكَلَّمَ الرَّبُّ قَائِلاً: «فِي ثَلاَثِ سِنِينٍَ كَسِنِي الأَجِيرِ يُهَانُ مَجْدُ مُوآبَ بِكُلِّ الْجُمْهُورِ الْعَظِيمِ وَتَكُونُ الْبَقِيَّةُ قَلِيلَةً صَغِيرَةً لاَ كَبِيرَةً».
ISAIAH 6:1; 7:1 ~ In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw my Master [Lord]. He was sitting on a very high and wonderful throne. His long robe filled the temple…. Rezin was the king of Aram [Syria]Pekah… was the king of Israel. During the time Ahaz was king of Judah.) = أشعياء الفصل 6 – أشعياء الفصل 7
1  فِي سَنَةِ وَفَاةِ عُزِّيَّا الْمَلِكِ رَأَيْتُ السَّيِّدَ جَالِساً عَلَى كُرْسِيٍّ عَالٍ وَمُرْتَفِعٍ وَأَذْيَالُهُ تَمْلَأُ الْهَيْكَلَ.
1  وَحَدَثَ فِي أَيَّامِ آحَازَ بْنِ يُوثَامَ بْنِ عُزِّيَّا مَلِكِ يَهُوذَا أَنَّ رَصِينَ مَلِكَ أَرَامَ صَعِدَ مَعَ فَقْحَ بْنِ رَمَلْيَا مَلِكِ إِسْرَائِيلَ إِلَى أُورُشَلِيمَ لِمُحَارَبَتِهَا فَلَمْ يَقْدِرْ أَنْ يُحَارِبَهَا.
Uzziah reigned as king 787-735 BC.  Isaiah made this prophecy in 735 BC, and it was fulfilled three years later in In 732 BC,  It was fulfilled 13 years after Tiglath-Pilesar became king of Assyria (he reigned 745-727 BC). Tiglath-Pilesar, on a tablet now in possession of the Oriental Museum in Chicago and pictured here, said this about Moab, also known as Aram:


“In the service of my Lord Ashur, my chariots and warriors I assembled; I set out on my march. In front of my strong men I went to the country of the Aramaeans, the enemies of my Lord Ashur. From before Tsukha, as far as the city of Qarqamis belonging to the country of Khatte, I smote with one blow. Their fighting men I slew; their movables, their wealth, and their valuables in countless numbers I carried off. The men of their armies who fled from before the face of the valiant servants of my Lord Ashur, crossed over the Euphrates; in boats covered with bitumen skins I crossed the Euphrates after them; I took six of their cities which were below the country of Bisri; I burnt them with fire, and I destroyed and overthrew; and I brought their movables, their wealth, and their valuables to my city of Ashur.”

ISAIAH 18:1~ Look at the land along the rivers of Cush [Ethiopia].   {The land is filled with insects; you can hear} their buzzing wings. That land sends people across the sea in reed boats.  Fast messengers, go to the people that are tall and strong! (People in all places are afraid of these tall and strong people. They are a powerful nation. Their nation defeats other nations. They are in a country divided by rivers.) = أشعياء الفصل 18

1  يَا أَرْضَ حَفِيفِ الأَجْنِحَةِ الَّتِي فِي عَبْرِ أَنْهَارِ كُوشَ

To Egyptians, Lower Nubia and later of the Nubian kingdom at Napata, was also known as “kingdom of Kush”.

Unidentified Kushite king

Explorer James Bruce, who visited Ethiopia around 1770, wrote of “a tradition among the Abyssinians, which they say they have had since time immemorial”, that in the days after the Flood of Noah’s experience, Cush (Noah’s son), the son of Ham (Noah’s grandson), traveled with his family up the Nile until they reached the Atbara plain. There they built their settlement, Axum.  Then they returned to the lowland where they built Meroe.  The Cushite kingdom spread from there around north central Africa.

ISAIAH 20:1 ~ Sargon was the king of Assyria.  Sargon sent Tarton to Ashdod to fight against that city. Tarton went there and captured the city.  = أشعياء الفصل 20

1  فِي سَنَةِ مَجِيءِ تَرْتَانَ إِلَى أَشْدُودَ حِينَ أَرْسَلَهُ سَرْجُونُ مَلِكُ أَشُّورَ فَحَارَبَ أَشْدُودَ وَأَخَذَهَا

Ashdod castle ruins

Excavation of Assyrian-style palace in ASHDOD, for Sargon’s 

Sargon II began to rule Assyria in 722 BC.  After several military campaigns, in 713 BC he stayed at home; while his troops went out on another campaign.  In 711 BC, an uprising in the Philistine city of Ashdod, supported by Judah, Moab, Edom and Egypt, was suppressed, and Ashdod became an Assyrian province.

In 717 BC, Sargon II ordered a new palace and surrounding city be built at Dur Sharrikin, about twenty miles from Nineveh.  It was finished in 706 BC.  The following year he was killed in battle.  His son, Sennacherib, abandoned the palace and moved to Nineveh.

Several expeditions took place in the 1800s, but every time artifacts were shipped, they were destroyed from various mishaps.  A few surviving artifacts were taken to the Louvre in Paris.  Among them was an inscription from a pavement at Sargon’s palace which read:

“[Sargon II] who conquered Samaria and the entire land of Bit-Humria (Israel); who plundered Ashdod ”  (COS 2.118G, p.298)


Ethiopian Pharaoh Taharqa

ISAIAH 20:2-4 ~ At that time, the Lord  spoke through Isaiah son of Amoz. The Lord said, “Go, take the cloth of sadness off your waist. Take your shoes off your feet.” Isaiah obeyed the Lord….Then the Lord said, “Isaiah has walked around without clothes and without shoes for three years. This is a sign for Egypt and  Ethiopia. The king of Assyria will defeat Egypt and Ethiopia. Assyria will take prisoners and lead them away from their countries. The old people and young people will be led without clothes and without shoes. They will be completely naked. The people from Egypt will be shamed. = أشعياء الفصل 20

2  فِي ذَلِكَ الْوَقْتِ قَالَ الرَّبُّ عَنْ يَدِ إِشَعْيَاءَ بْنِ آمُوصَ: «اذْهَبْ وَحُلَّ الْمِسْحَ عَنْ حَقَوَيْكَ وَاخْلَعْ حِذَاءَكَ عَنْ رِجْلَيْكَ». فَفَعَلَ هَكَذَا وَمَشَى مُعَرًّى وَحَافِياً.
3  فَقَالَ الرَّبُّ: «كَمَا مَشَى عَبْدِي إِشَعْيَاءُ مُعَرًّى وَحَافِياً ثَلاَثَ سِنِينٍ آيَةً وَأُعْجُوبَةً عَلَى مِصْرَ وَعَلَى كُوشَ
4  هَكَذَا يَسُوقُ مَلِكُ أَشُّورَ سَبْيَ مِصْرَ وَجَلاَءَ كُوشَ الْفِتْيَانَ وَالشُّيُوخَ عُرَاةً وَحُفَاةً وَمَكْشُوفِي الأَسْتَاهِ خِزْياً لِمِصْرَ.

Pharaoh Taharqa was the first in a dynasty of Kushite (Ethiopian) pharaohs.  When Assyria attacked, he tried to rebuff them, but finally fled to the south.

In 671 BC Assyrian king Esarhaddon, grandson of Sargon, went to war against Pharaoh Taharqa of Egypt. His troops took Memphis, and Taharqa fled to Upper Egypt. Esarhaddon now called himself  “king of Egypt, Patros and Kush”, and returned with rich booty from the cities of the delta.  He erected a victory stele at this time, showing the son of Pharaoh Taharqa ~ Prince Ushankhuru ~ in bondage.


Assyrian King Eserhaddon

Assyrian King Esarhaddon

“His [Pharaoh Taharqa’s] queen, his harem, [Prince] Ushankhuru his heir, and the rest of his sons and daughters, his property and his goods, his horses, his cattle, his sheep in countless numbers, I carried off to Assyria. The root of Kush [Ethiopia] I tore up out of Egypt.”

Marduk Baladan of Babylon-

Merodach Baladan and Baladan

ISAIAH 39:1 ~ At that time, Merodach Baladan son of Baladan was king of Babylon.  Merodach sent letters and a gift to Hezekiah. Merodach did this because he heard that Hezekiah had been sick. These things made Hezekiah very happy. = أشعياء الفصل 39

1  فِي ذَلِكَ الزَّمَانِ أَرْسَلَ مَرُودَخُ بَلاَدَانَ بْنُ بَلاَدَانَ مَلِكُ بَابِلَ رَسَائِلَ وَهَدِيَّةً إِلَى حَزَقِيَّا لأَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَنَّهُ مَرِضَ ثُمَّ صَحَّ.

Merodach/Marduk Baladan was a Chaldean/Babylonian prince and very ambitious.  He usurped the Babylonian throne in 721 BC and reigned until 710 BC. He was strong enough to maintain Babylonian independence from Assyrian control for over a decade. King Sargon II of Assyria was able to repress his allies, Judah [Hezekiah], Aram (Syria) and Elam, and that kept Babylon on its own.  But eventually Sargon drove Merodach from Babylon in 710 BC.  After Sargon’s death in 705 BC, Merodach returned and reigned nearly another year in 703 BC.  Nine months later he was defeated by the Assyrians, fled, and died a couple years later.

An Engraving of him is on display at the Royal Museum in Berlin.

ISAIAH 39:2, 5-7 ~ So Hezekiah showed the men all the valuable things in his storehouses….Hezekiah showed them [ambassadors from Babylon] the swords and shields used for war…. Hezekiah showed them everything. = أشعياء الفصل 39

2  فَفَرِحَ بِهِمْ حَزَقِيَّا وَأَرَاهُمْ بَيْتَ ذَخَائِرِهِ: الْفِضَّةَ وَالذَّهَبَ وَالأَطْيَابَ وَالزَّيْتَ الطَّيِّبَ وَكُلَّ بَيْتِ أَسْلِحَتِهِ وَكُلَّ مَا وُجِدَ فِي خَزَائِنِهِ. لَمْ يَكُنْ شَيْءٌ لَمْ يُرِهِمْ إِيَّاهُ حَزَقِيَّا فِي بَيْتِهِ وَفِي كُلِّ مُلْكِهِ.

Then Isaiah said this to Hezekiah: “Listen to the words from the Lord All-Powerful.’The time is coming when all the things in your house and all the things your ancestors have saved until today will be carried away to Babylon. Nothing will be left!’ The Lord All-Powerful said this. The Babylonians will take your own sons [descendants]. And your sons will become officers* in the palace of the king of Babylon.” = أشعياء الفصل 39

5  فَقَالَ إِشَعْيَاءُ لِحَزَقِيَّا: «اسْمَعْ قَوْلَ رَبِّ الْجُنُودِ:
6  هُوَذَا تَأْتِي أَيَّامٌ يُحْمَلُ فِيهَا كُلُّ مَا فِي بَيْتِكَ وَمَا خَزَنَهُ آبَاؤُكَ إِلَى هَذَا الْيَوْمِ إِلَى بَابِلَ. لاَ يُتْرَكُ شَيْءٌ يَقُولُ الرَّبُّ.
7  وَمِنْ بَنِيكَ الَّذِينَ يَخْرُجُونَ مِنْكَ الَّذِينَ تَلِدُهُمْ يَأْخُذُونَ فَيَكُونُونَ خِصْيَاناً فِي قَصْرِ مَلِكِ بَابِلَ».

(Daniel 1:1-3 ~ Nebuchadnezzar was the king of Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar came to Jerusalem. Nebuchadnezzar surrounded Jerusalem with his army. This happened during the third year that Jehoiakim was king of Judah.The Lord allowed Nebuchadnezzar to defeat Jehoiakim king of Judah. Nebuchadnezzar took all of the dishes and other things from God’s temple. Nebuchadnezzar carried those things to Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar put those things in the temple of his idol gods.) = دانيال الفصل 1

1  فِي السَّنَةِ الثَّالِثَةِ مِنْ مُلْكِ يَهُويَاقِيمَ مَلِكِ يَهُوذَا ذَهَبَ نَبُوخَذْنَصَّرُ مَلِكُ بَابِلَ إِلَى أُورُشَلِيمَ وَحَاصَرَهَا.
2  وَسَلَّمَ الرَّبُّ بِيَدِهِ يَهُويَاقِيمَ مَلِكَ يَهُوذَا مَعَ بَعْضِ آنِيَةِ بَيْتِ اللَّهِ فَجَاءَ بِهَا إِلَى أَرْضِ شِنْعَارَ إِلَى بَيْتِ إِلَهِهِ وَأَدْخَلَ الآنِيَةَ إِلَى خِزَانَةِ بَيْتِ إِلَهِهِ.
3  وَأَمَرَ الْمَلِكُ أَشْفَنَزَ رَئِيسَ خِصْيَانِهِ بِأَنْ يُحْضِرَ مِنْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ وَمِنْ نَسْلِ الْمُلْكِ وَمِنَ الشُّرَفَاءِ

Hezekiah’s dynasty through is descendants were as follows:  Hezekiah > Manasseh > Amon > Josiah > Jehoahaz > Jehoiachim ~ Jehoiachin.  Isaiah’s prediction came true one hundred years after Hezekiah’s death.

Babylonian Chronicle, British Museum

Babylonian Chronicle in British Museum

The Babylonian Chronicles, show that Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem the first time during the reign of Jehoaichin on 2 Adar (16 March) 597 BC.  These chronicle tables are on display at the British Museum in London.

Nebuchadnezzar had this inscribed on what today is called the Jerusalem Chronicle. Side 1:

21. In the second year [603/602] in the month of Ajaru  the king of Akkad [Babylon] gathered together a
powerful army and marched to the land of Hatti (Canaan/Palestine).
22. …]  he threw down, great siege-towers he […
23. …] from the month of Ajaru until the mon[th of …] he marched about unopposed in the land of Hatti.


Side 2 he said this about his final siege:

Nebuchednessar's palace

Ruins of Nebuchadnezzar’s palace in Iraq


11′. In the seventh year [598/597], the month of Kislîmu, the king of Akkad mustered his troops, marched to the Hatti-land,

12′. and besieged the city of Judah and on the second day of the month of Addaru he seized the city and captured the king [Jehoiachin]

13′. He appointed there a king of his own choice [Zedekiah], received its heavy tribute and sent to Babylon.

ISAIAH 44:28; 45:4  ~ The Lord says to Cyrus, “You are my shepherd. You will do the things I want. You will say to Jerusalem,‘You will be built again!’ You will tell the temple, ‘Your foundations will be built again!’”  I do these things for my servant, Jacob. I do these things for my chosen people, Israel. {Cyrus,} I am calling you by name. You don’t know me, but I am calling you by name. = أشعياء الفصل 44 – أشعياء الفصل 45

28 الْقَائِلُ عَنْ كُورَشَ: رَاعِيَّ فَكُلَّ مَسَرَّتِي يُتَمِّمُ. وَيَقُولُ عَنْ أُورُشَلِيمَ: سَتُبْنَى وَلِلْهَيْكَلِ: سَتُؤَسَّسُ».

4  لأَجْلِ عَبْدِي يَعْقُوبَ وَإِسْرَائِيلَ مُخْتَارِي دَعَوْتُكَ بِاسْمِكَ. لَقَّبْتُكَ وَأَنْتَ لَسْتَ تَعْرِفُنِي.

Isaiah made this prophecy around 700 BC.  Cyrus A king of Persia. He ruled about 550–530 B.C.  King Cyrus lived about 150 years after this prediction.  It was King Cyrus who authorized rebuilding Jerusalem.  For details on this and quotes from inscriptions, look in the History section for Cyrus.



ISAIAH 46:1-2 ~ Bel and Nebo, will bow down before me. {Those false gods are only statues.} Men put those statues on the backs of animals—those statues are only heavy burdens that must be carried. The false gods do nothing but make people tired. Those false gods will all bow down—they will all fall. Those false gods can’t escape—they will all be carried away like prisoners. = أشعياء الفصل 46

1  قَدْ جَثَا بِيلُ انْحَنَى نَبُو. صَارَتْ تَمَاثِيلُهُمَا عَلَى الْحَيَوَانَاتِ وَالْبَهَائِمِ. مَحْمُولاَتُكُمْ مُحَمَّلَةٌ حِمْلاً لِلْمُعْيِي.
2  قَدِ انْحَنَتْ. جَثَتْ مَعاً. لَمْ تَقْدِرْ أَنْ تُنَجِّيَ الْحِمْلَ وَهِيَ نَفْسُهَا قَدْ مَضَتْ فِي السَّبْيِ.

Inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar read thusly:

Column 1:
[1.30] (namely) of Merodach great Lord, the god my maker.
[1.31] His skilful works
[1.32] highly have I glorified;
[1.33] and of 
Nebo his eldest son
[1.34] exalter of My Royalty
[1.35] the processions (in honor of) his exalted deity
[1.36] I firmly established.
[1.37] With all my heart firmly
[1.38] (in) worship of their deities I uprose
[1.39] in reverence for 
Nebo their Lord.
Column 4:
[4.7] A temple for sacrifices, the lofty citadel
[4.8] of 
Bel and Merodach, god of gods,
[4.9] a threshold of joy and supremacy
[4.10] among angels and spirits,
Column 5:
[5.19] as a shrine of the great Lord, the god Merodach
[5.20] I built as a house for processions.
[5.21, 22] I his eldest son, the chosen of his heart,
[5.23, 24] 
Imgur-Bel and Nimetti-Bel


JEREMIAH 22:11 ~ This is what the Lord says about Shallum (Jehoahaz) son of Josiah. (Shallum became king of Judah after his father Josiah died.) “Jehoahaz has gone away from Jerusalem. He will never come back to Jerusalem again.” = أرمياء الفصل 22

11  لأَنَّهُ هَكَذَا قَالَ الرَّبُّ عَنْ شَلُّومَ بْنِ يُوشِيَّا مَلِكِ يَهُوذَا الْمَالِكِ عِوَضاً عَنْ يُوشِيَّا أَبِيهِ: [الَّذِي خَرَجَ مِنْ هَذَا الْمَوْضِعِ لاَ يَرْجِعُ إِلَيْهِ بَعْدُ.

Fragments of 21 letters hurriedly written on pieces of clay pottery during a siege by troops of Nebuchadnezzar around 588 BC.  They are from an outpost of Lachish to the captain of the guard who was defending Lachish.  They were found by archaeologists J. LO. Starkey and Sir Charles Marston.  in a deposit of ash and charcoal on the floor of the guard room where defenders of Lachish had made their
last stand.

“The letter of Nedabiah, servant of the king which came to Shallum from the prophet”.



Ruins of Lachish

 Nadabiah was grandson of King Kehoiakim.  Shallum (Jehoahas) was brother of Jehoiakim who had been taken to Egypt.

Siege of Lachish, British Museum

JEREMIAH 26:22; 36:12 ~ But King Jehoiakim sent a man named Elnathan and some other men to Egypt. Elnathan was the son of a man named Acbor.  When Micaiah heard the messages from the scroll, he went down to the secretary’s room in the king’s palace. All of the royal officials were sitting there in the king’s palace. These are the names of those officials….Elnathan son of Acbor…. = أرمياء الفصل 26 – أرمياء الفصل 36

22 فَأَرْسَلَ الْمَلِكُ يَهُويَاقِيمُ أُنَاساً إِلَى مِصْرَ أَلْنَاثَانَ بْنَ عَكْبُورَ وَرِجَالاً مَعَهُ إِلَى مِصْرَ

12  نَزَلَ إِلَى بَيْتِ الْمَلِكِ إِلَى مِخْدَعِ الْكَاتِبِ وَإِذَا كُلُّ الرُّؤَسَاءِ جُلُوسٌ هُنَاكَ. أَلِيشَامَاعُ الْكَاتِبُ وَدَلاَيَا بْنُ شَمَعْيَا وَأَلْنَاثَانُ بْنُ عَكْبُورَ وَجَمَرْيَا بْنُ شَافَانَ وَصِدْقِيَّا بْنُ حَنَنِيَّا وَكُلُّ الرُّؤَسَاءِ.

JEREMIAH 28:1 ~ In the fifth month of the fourth year that Zedekiah was king of Judah, Hananiah the prophet spoke to me. Hananiah was the son of a man named Azzur. = أرمياء الفصل 28

1  وَحَدَثَ فِي تِلْكَ السَّنَةِ فِي ابْتِدَاءِ مُلْكِ صِدْقِيَّا مَلِكِ يَهُوذَا فِي السَّنَةِ الرَّابِعَةِ فِي الشَّهْرِ الْخَامِسِ أَنَّ حَنَنِيَّا بْنَ عَزُورَ النَّبِيَّ الَّذِي مِنْ جِبْعُونَ قَالَ لِي فِي بَيْتِ الرَّبِّ أَمَامَ الْكَهَنَةِ وَكُلِّ الشَّعْبِ:

In 1975, nearly 250 clay seals impressions were found about 44 miles southwest of Jerusalem. The seal impression of Hananiah was among them.   It reads “Hananiah, son of Azariah” (Azzur).
Hananiah Seal

Hananiah Seal

JEREMIAH 35:3 ~ So I (Jeremiah) went to get Jaazaniah.  Jaazaniah was the son of a man named Jeremiah, that was the son of a man named Habazziniah. And I got all of Jaazaniah’s brothers and sons. I got the whole family of the Recabites together. = أرمياء الفصل 35

3  فَأَخَذْتُ يَزَنْيَا بْنَ إِرْمِيَا بْنِ حَبْصِينِيَا وَإِخْوَتَهُ وَكُلَّ بَنِيهِ وَكُلَّ بَيْتِ الرَّكَابِيِّينَ

The seal of Jaazaniah was found at Mizpah.  Jaazaniah was the head of the Racabite clan and apparently a representative of the clan to the king, or had other responsibilities of the king.  His seal reads:   Jaazniah, Servant of the King.


Jaazaniah Seal

Jaazniah Seal

JEREMIAH 36:4, 8 ~ So Jeremiah called a man named Baruch. Baruch was the son of Neriah. Jeremiah spoke the messages the Lord had given him. While Jeremiah spoke, Baruch wrote those messages on the scroll….So Baruch son of Neriah did everything Jeremiah the prophet told him to do. Baruch read aloud the scroll that had the Lord’s messages written on it. He read it in the Lord’s temple. = أرمياء الفصل 36

4  فَدَعَا إِرْمِيَا بَارُوخَ بْنَ نِيرِيَّا فَكَتَبَ بَارُوخُ عَنْ فَمِ إِرْمِيَا كُلَّ كَلاَمِ الرَّبِّ الَّذِي كَلَّمَهُ بِهِ فِي دَرْجِ السِّفْرِ.

8  فَفَعَلَ بَارُوخُ بْنُ نِيرِيَّا حَسَبَ كُلِّ مَا أَوْصَاهُ بِهِ إِرْمِيَا النَّبِيُّ بِقِرَاءَتِهِ فِي السِّفْرِ كَلاَمَ الرَّبِّ فِي بَيْتِ الرَّبِّ.

(There are many references to Barach throughout the book of Jeremiah since he was Jeremiah’s scribe.)

Among them was Barach’s seal impression.  Berekh-yahu son of Neriyahu the scribe.

Barach Seal

Barach’s Seal

JEREMIAH 36:4; 51:59 ~ So Jeremiah called a man named Baruch. Baruch was the son of Neriah.  Jeremiah spoke the messages the Lord had given him. While Jeremiah spoke, Baruch wrote those messages on the scroll….This is the message that Jeremiah gave to the officer Seraiah.  Seraiah was the son of NeriahNeriah was the son of Mahseiah. = أرمياء الفصل 36 – أرمياء الفصل 51

4  فَدَعَا إِرْمِيَا بَارُوخَ بْنَ نِيرِيَّا فَكَتَبَ بَارُوخُ عَنْ فَمِ إِرْمِيَا كُلَّ كَلاَمِ الرَّبِّ الَّذِي كَلَّمَهُ بِهِ فِي دَرْجِ السِّفْرِ.

59 اَلأَمْرُ الَّذِي أَوْصَى بِهِ إِرْمِيَا النَّبِيُّ سَرَايَا بْنَ نِيرِيَّا بْنِ مَحْسِيَّا عِنْدَ ذَهَابِهِ مَعَ صِدْقِيَّا مَلِكِ يَهُوذَا إِلَى بَابِلَ فِي السَّنَةِ الرَّابِعَةِ لِمُلْكِهِ. (وَكَانَ سَرَايَا رَئِيسَ الْمَحَلَّةِ)

Neriah, was the father of Jeremiah’s scribe, Baruch, and also of Seriah (mentioned below). Neriah is mentioned in the Lachish letters as being father of Baruch and Seriah, as well as on their seals.

Neriah Seal

Seal of Seraiah, Son of Neriah

JEREMIAH 36:7 ~ This was while the army of the king of Babylon was fighting against Jerusalem. The army of Babylon was also fighting against the cities of Judah that had not been captured. Those cities were Lachish and Azekah. These were the only fortified cities left in the land of Judah. = أرمياء الفصل 36

7  لَعَلَّ تَضَرُّعَهُمْ يَقَعُ أَمَامَ الرَّبِّ فَيَرْجِعُوا كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ عَنْ طَرِيقِهِ الرَّدِيءِ لأَنَّهُ عَظِيمٌ الْغَضَبُ وَالْغَيْظُ اللَّذَانِ تَكَلَّمَ بِهِمَا الرَّبُّ عَلَى هَذَا الشَّعْبِ].


Remains of Azekah

When the Philistines showed of Goliath, troops were camped between Sokho and Azekah (1 Samuel 17). King Rehoboam fortified the town along with Lachish and other strategic sites (2 Chronicles 11:5-10).  Lachish and Azekah were the last two towns to fall to the Babylonians before the overthrow of Jerusalem  itself.

One of the Lachish letters (IV) indicates that Azekah did finally fall:  I will send for him tomorrow at daylight. And let it be known to my master that we will be looking for the signals from Lachish, according to the instructions which he has given, for no signals from Azekah have been seen.

Gemariah Seal

Seal of Gemariah

JEREMIAH 36:10-12 ~ This is what the letter said…. Baruch was in the room of Gemariah in the upper courtyard when he read from the scroll. That room was located at the entrance of the New Gate of the temple. Gemariah was the son of Shaphan. …messages from the Lord that Baruch read from the scroll. Micaiah was the son of Gemariah, the son of Shaphan. …All of the royal officials were sitting there in the king’s palace. These are the names of those officials: … Gemariah son of Shaphan…. = أرمياء الفصل 36
10  فَقَرَأَ بَارُوخُ فِي السِّفْرِ كَلاَمَ إِرْمِيَا فِي بَيْتِ الرَّبِّ فِي مِخْدَعِ جَمَرْيَا بْنِ شَافَانَ الْكَاتِبِ فِي الدَّارِ الْعُلْيَا فِي مَدْخَلِ بَابِ بَيْتِ الرَّبِّ الْجَدِيدِ فِي آذَانِ كُلِّ الشَّعْبِ.
11  فَلَمَّا سَمِعَ مِيخَايَا بْنُ جَمَرْيَا بْنِ شَافَانَ كُلَّ كَلاَمِ الرَّبِّ مِنَ السِّفْرِ
12  نَزَلَ إِلَى بَيْتِ الْمَلِكِ إِلَى مِخْدَعِ الْكَاتِبِ وَإِذَا كُلُّ الرُّؤَسَاءِ جُلُوسٌ هُنَاكَ. أَلِيشَامَاعُ الْكَاتِبُ وَدَلاَيَا بْنُ شَمَعْيَا وَأَلْنَاثَانُ بْنُ عَكْبُورَ وَجَمَرْيَا بْنُ شَافَانَ وَصِدْقِيَّا بْنُ حَنَنِيَّا وَكُلُّ الرُّؤَسَاءِ.

Gemariah, son of Shaphan, was a scribe and officer of King Zedekiah.  The imprint of his seal has been found.  It reads “Gemariah, son of Shaphan”  Also, one of the Lachish letters mentions Gemariah.

JEREMIAH 36:12 ~ When Micaiah heard the messages from the scroll, he went down to the secretary’s room in the king’s palace. All of the royal officials were sitting there in the king’s palace. These are the names of those officials: Elishama the secretary, Delaiah son of Shemaiah….and all the other royal officials were there too. = أرمياء الفصل 36

12  نَزَلَ إِلَى بَيْتِ الْمَلِكِ إِلَى مِخْدَعِ الْكَاتِبِ وَإِذَا كُلُّ الرُّؤَسَاءِ جُلُوسٌ هُنَاكَ. أَلِيشَامَاعُ الْكَاتِبُ وَدَلاَيَا بْنُ شَمَعْيَا وَأَلْنَاثَانُ بْنُ عَكْبُورَ وَجَمَرْيَا بْنُ شَافَانَ وَصِدْقِيَّا بْنُ حَنَنِيَّا وَكُلُّ الرُّؤَسَاءِ.
Elishama Seal

Seal of Elishama

The seal impression of “Elishama, servant of the king” was found among the others near Jerusalem.

JEREMIAH 36:26 ~ And King Jehoiakim commanded some men to arrest Baruch the scribe and Jeremiah the prophet. Those men were Jerahmeel, a son of the king, Seraiah son of Azriel, and Shelemiah son of Abdeel. = أرمياء الفصل 36

26 بَلْ أَمَرَ الْمَلِكُ يَرْحَمْئِيلَ ابْنَ الْمَلِكِ وَسَرَايَا بْنَ عَزَرْئِيلَ وَشَلَمْيَا بْنَ عَبْدِئِيلَ أَنْ يَقْبِضُوا عَلَى بَارُوخَ الْكَاتِبِ وَإِرْمِيَا النَّبِيِّ وَلَكِنَّ الرَّبَّ خَبَّأَهُمَا

Jerahmel Seal

Jerahmeel Seal

The seal impression of Jerahmeel was found among the numerous seal impressions found near Jerusalem.  It reads, “Jerahmeel, son of the king”

JEREMIAH 37:3; 38:1 ~ King Zedekiah sent a man named Jehucal and the priest Zephaniah to Jeremiah the prophet with a message. Jehucal was the son of Shelemiah. The priest Zephaniah was the son of Maaseiah….Some of the royal officials heard what Jeremiah was preaching. They were….Jehucal son of Shelemiah. = أرمياء الفصل 37 – أرمياء الفصل 38

3  وَأَرْسَلَ الْمَلِكُ صِدْقِيَّا يَهُوخَلَ بْنَ شَلَمْيَا وَصَفَنْيَا بْنَ مَعْسِيَّا الْكَاهِنَ إِلَى إِرْمِيَا النَّبِيِّ قَائِلاً: [صَلِّ لأَجْلِنَا إِلَى الرَّبِّ إِلَهِنَا].

1  وَسَمِعَ شَفَطْيَا بْنُ مَتَّانَ وَجَدَلْيَا بْنُ فَشْحُورَ وَيُوخَلُ بْنُ شَلَمْيَا وَفَشْحُورُ بْنُ مَلْكِيَّا الْكَلاَمَ الَّذِي كَانَ إِرْمِيَا يُكَلِّمُ بِهِ كُلَّ الشَّعْبِ قَائِلاً:

The seal impression of Jehucal has been found.  It reads, ” Jehucal son of Shelemiah son of Shavi”.

Jucal Seal

Jehucal Seal

JEREMIAH 38:1 & 6 ~ Shephatiah son of Mattan, Gedaliah son of Pashhur, Jehukal, son of Shelemiah, and Pashhur son of Malkijah heard what Jeremiah was telling all the people….So those officials took Jeremiah and put him into Malkijah’s cistern. (Malkijah was the king’s son.) That cistern was in the temple yard where the king’s guard stayed. Those officials used ropes to lower Jeremiah into the cistern. The cistern didn’t have any water in it, but only mud. And Jeremiah sank down into the mud = أرمياء الفصل 38

1  وَسَمِعَ شَفَطْيَا بْنُ مَتَّانَ وَجَدَلْيَا بْنُ فَشْحُورَ وَيُوخَلُ بْنُ شَلَمْيَا وَفَشْحُورُ بْنُ مَلْكِيَّا الْكَلاَمَ الَّذِي كَانَ إِرْمِيَا يُكَلِّمُ بِهِ كُلَّ الشَّعْبِ قَائِلاً:

6  فَأَخَذُوا إِرْمِيَا وَأَلْقُوهُ فِي جُبِّ مَلْكِيَّا ابْنِ الْمَلِكِ الَّذِي فِي دَارِ السِّجْنِ وَدَلُّوا إِرْمِيَا بِحِبَالٍ. وَلَمْ يَكُنْ فِي الْجُبِّ مَاءٌ بَلْ وَحْلٌ فَغَاصَ إِرْمِيَا فِي الْوَحْلِ.

Gedaliah Seal

Gedaliah Seal

Above are the seals of two of Jeremiah’s captors.  “Yehuchal [or Jehucal] ben Shelemyahu [Shelemiah]” (pictured above). “Gedalyahu [Gedaliah] ben Pashur” (pictured here.)

JEREMIAH 39:2-3; 46:3 ~ And on the ninth day of the fourth month in Zedekiah’s eleventh year, the wall of Jerusalem was broken through. Then all the royal officials of the king of Babylon came into the city of Jerusalem. They came in and sat down at the Middle Gate. These are the names of those officials…. Nebo Sarsekim, another very high official; and various other important officials were there also. = أرمياء الفصل 39 – أرمياء الفصل 46

2  وَفِي السَّنَةِ الْحَادِيَةِ عَشَرَةَ لِصِدْقِيَّا فِي الشَّهْرِ الرَّابِعِ فِي تَاسِعِ الشَّهْرِ فُتِحَتِ الْمَدِينَةُ.
3  وَدَخَلَ كُلُّ رُؤَسَاءِ مَلِكِ بَابِلَ وَجَلَسُوا فِي الْبَابِ الأَوْسَطِ: نَرْجَلَ شَرَاصَرُ وَسَمْجَرْ نَبُو وَسَرْسَخِيمُ رَئِيسُ الْخِصْيَانِ وَنَرْجَلَ شَرَاصَرُ رَئِيسُ الْمَجُوسِ وَكُلُّ بَقِيَّةِ رُؤَسَاءِ مَلِكِ بَابِلَ.

3  [أَعِدُّوا الْمِجَنَّ وَالتُّرْسَ وَتَقَدَّمُوا لِلْحَرْبِ.

In 2007, Austrian Assyriologist Michael Jursa was deciphering as many as possible of the more than 100,000 cuneiform tablets in the British Museum. In June, he analyzed records from the Babylonian city of Sippar.  Among them, he found a receipt for a one-and-a-half pound gold donation to a temple made by an official, the “chief eunuch Nebo-Sarsekim.”

Nebo Sarsekim Tablet-British Museum

NEBO SARSEKIM Tablet of Babylon

JEREMIAH 39:2, 4 ~ And on the ninth day of the fourth month in Zedekiah’s eleventh year, the wall of Jerusalem was broken through….Zedekiah king of Judah saw those officials from Babylon, so he and the soldiers with him ran away. They left Jerusalem at night. They went out through the king’s garden and out through the gate that was between the two walls. Then they went toward the desert. = أرمياء الفصل 39
2  وَفِي السَّنَةِ الْحَادِيَةِ عَشَرَةَ لِصِدْقِيَّا فِي الشَّهْرِ الرَّابِعِ فِي تَاسِعِ الشَّهْرِ فُتِحَتِ الْمَدِينَةُ.
4  فَلَمَّا رَآهُمْ صِدْقِيَّا مَلِكُ يَهُوذَا وَكُلُّ رِجَالِ الْحَرْبِ هَرَبُوا وَخَرَجُوا لَيْلاً مِنَ الْمَدِينَةِ فِي طَرِيقِ جَنَّةِ الْمَلِكِ مِنَ الْبَابِ بَيْنَ السُّورَيْنِ وَخَرَجَ هُوَ فِي طَرِيقِ الْعَرَبَةِ.
Gate between two walls

Gate between the two walls

In 1967, archaeologist Vendyl Jones and his son, Gersham, found this gate between the two walls.  Near the Damascus Gate (built in the 1500s) and inside the wall of Jerusalem is the entrance the Grotto/Cave of Zedekiah.  It works its way under the Temple Mount for 19 miles and comes out in the Valley of Achor.  While exploring the chambers on the north side of the Zedekiah Cave, they came to a large side chamber with high ceilings, and to one side of it a non-bonded wall ~ a wall of stone laid alternately with each other.  In this outer wall was the gateway.

The outer wall was apparently one built by the Jebusites before David arrived and renamed Jebus the City of David and later Jerusalem. Read more at

JEREMIAH 40:5, 8 ~ Or go back to Gedaliah son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan. The king of Babylon has chosen Gedaliah to be governor over the towns of Judah….So those soldiers came to Gedaliah at Mizpah. Those soldiers were: Ishmael son of Nethaniah, Johanan, and his brother Jonathan, sons of Kareah, Seraiah son of Tanhumeth, sons of Ephai from Netophah, and Jaazaniah son of the Maacathite, and the men that were with them. = أرمياء الفصل 40

5  وَإِذْ كَانَ لَمْ يَرْجِعْ بَعْدُ قَالَ: [ارْجِعْ إِلَى جَدَلْيَا بْنِ أَخِيقَامَ بْنِ شَافَانَ الَّذِي أَقَامَهُ مَلِكُ بَابِلَ عَلَى مُدُنِ يَهُوذَا وَأَقِمْ عِنْدَهُ فِي وَسَطِ الشَّعْبِ وَانْطَلِقْ إِلَى حَيْثُ كَانَ مُسْتَقِيماً فِي عَيْنَيْكَ أَنْ تَنْطَلِقَ]. وَأَعْطَاهُ رَئِيسُ الشُّرَطِ زَاداً وَهَدِيَّةً وَأَطْلَقَهُ.

8  أَتَى إِلَى جَدَلْيَا إِلَى الْمِصْفَاةِ إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ نَثَنْيَا وَيُوحَانَانُ وَيُونَاثَانُ ابْنَا قَارِيحَ وَسَرَايَا بْنُ تَنْحُومَثَ وَبَنُو عِيفَايَ النَّطُوفَاتِيُّ وَيَزَنْيَا ابْنُ الْمَعْكِيِّ هُمْ وَرِجَالُهُمْ.

There were two Gedaliahs.  One was Jeremiah’s captor and enemy as noted above. The other was appointed governor by Nebuchadnezzzar.


At Lachish, archaeologist Starkey, found in the layer of ashes left by Nebuchadnezzar’s fire among the Lachish Letters another seal of Gedaliah.   It confirms that Gedaliah was over the cities of Judah, “the house of” usually referring to “the dynasty of”.  Inscribed on it is: “Belonging to Gedaliah, the one  who is over the house.”

JEREMIAH 40:8 ~ So those soldiers came to Gedaliah at Mizpah. Those soldiers were: Ishmael son of Nethaniah, Johanan, and his brother Jonathan, sons of Kareah, Seraiah son of Tanhumeth, sons of Ephai from Netophah, and Jaazaniah son of the Maacathite, and the men that were with them. = أرمياء الفصل 40

8  أَتَى إِلَى جَدَلْيَا إِلَى الْمِصْفَاةِ إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ نَثَنْيَا وَيُوحَانَانُ وَيُونَاثَانُ ابْنَا قَارِيحَ وَسَرَايَا بْنُ تَنْحُومَثَ وَبَنُو عِيفَايَ النَّطُوفَاتِيُّ وَيَزَنْيَا ابْنُ الْمَعْكِيِّ هُمْ وَرِجَالُهُمْ.

Jaazaniah was one of Gedaliah’s army captains.  Archaeologist W. F. Bade found in the ruins of Mizpah, 6 miles NW of Jerusalem, the seat of Gedaliah’s government, the actual exquisite agate seal inscribed, “Belonging to Jaazaniah, servant of the king.”

JEREMIAH 40:14 ~ Johanan and those officers with him said to Gedaliah, “Do you know that Baalis, the king of the Ammonite people, wants to kill you? He has sent Ishmael son of Nethaniah to kill you.”  = أرمياء الفصل 40

14  وَقَالُوا لَهُ: [أَتَعْلَمُ عِلْماً أَنَّ بَعْلِيسَ مَلِكَ بَنِي عَمُّونَ قَدْ أَرْسَلَ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنَ نَثَنْيَا لِيَقْتُلَكَ؟] فَلَمْ يُصَدِّقْهُمْ جَدَلْيَا بْنُ أَخِيقَامَ.

Baalis Seal

The actual seal of King Baalis, who wanted to kill Gedaliah, has been found:  It reads “Baalyisha, King of the ….”

JEREMIAH 43:7-9; 44:1 ~ Those people didn’t listen to the Lord. So all those people went to Egypt. They went to the town of Tahpanhes. them and bury them in the clay and brick sidewalk in front of Pharaoh’s Official building in Tahpanhes. In the town of Tahpanhes, Jeremiah received this message from the Lord…. The message was for the people of Judah living in the towns of Migdol, Tahpanhes, Memphis, and southern Egypt…. = أرمياء الفصل 43 – أرمياء الفصل 44

7  فَجَاءُوا إِلَى أَرْضِ مِصْرَ لأَنَّهُمْ لَمْ يَسْمَعُوا لِصَوْتِ الرَّبِّ وَأَتُوا إِلَى تَحْفَنِيسَ.
8  ثُمَّ صَارَتْ كَلِمَةُ الرَّبِّ إِلَى إِرْمِيَا فِي تَحْفَنِيسَ قَائِلَةً:
9  [خُذْ بِيَدِكَ حِجَارَةً كَبِيرَةً وَاطْمُرْهَا فِي الْمِلاَطِ فِي الْمَلْبِنِ الَّذِي عِنْدَ بَابِ بَيْتِ فِرْعَوْنَ فِي تَحْفَنِيسَ أَمَامَ رِجَالٍ يَهُودٍ

1  اَلْكَلِمَةُ الَّتِي صَارَتْ إِلَى إِرْمِيَا مِنْ جِهَةِ كُلِّ الْيَهُودِ السَّاكِنِينَ فِي أَرْضِ مِصْرَ السَّاكِنِينَ فِي مَجْدَلَ وَفِي تَحْفَنِيسَ وَفِي نُوفَ وَفِي أَرْضِ فَتْرُوسَ:


Tahpanghes Palace

Tahpahnes was an Egyptian palace fort on the route to Palestine and originally built for Pharaoh’s daughter, Daphnae.  Its site has been identified about 10 miles west of the Suez Canal.  Archaeologist Flinders Petrie uncovered the ruins of a large castle, in front of which was a great open air platform of brickwork.  Pictured is a drawing of the Egyptian palace that was once there, based on the excavated foundation and artifacts found there.

JEREMIAH 43:10-11 ~ ….‘This is what the Lord All-Powerful, the God of Israel, says: I will send for Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon, to come here. He is my servant. And I will set his throne over these stones I have buried here. Nebuchadnezzar will spread his canopy above these stones. Nebuchadnezzar will come here and attack Egypt. = أرمياء الفصل 43

10  وَقُلْ لَهُمْ: هَكَذَا قَالَ رَبُّ الْجُنُودِ إِلَهُ إِسْرَائِيلَ: هَئَنَذَا أُرْسِلُ وَآخُذُ نَبُوخَذْنَصَّرَ مَلِكَ بَابِلَ عَبْدِي وَأَضَعُ كُرْسِيَّهُ فَوْقَ هَذِهِ الْحِجَارَةِ الَّتِي طَمَرْتُهَا فَيُبْسِطُ دِيبَاجَهُ عَلَيْهَا.
11  وَيَأْتِي وَيَضْرِبُ أَرْضَ مِصْرَ الَّذِي لِلْمَوْتِ فَلِلْمَوْتِ وَالَّذِي لِلسَّبْيِ فَلِلسَّبْيِ وَالَّذِي لِلسَّيْفِ فَلِلسَّيْفِ.

The self-imposed exiles from Judah arrived at Tahpahnes in 586 BC. A clay tablet, now in the British Museum, states: “In the 37th year of Nebuchadnezzar, king of the country of Babylon, he went to Mitzraim (Egypt) to make war. Amasis, king of Egypt, collected [his army], and marched and spread abroad.”   Hophra was pharaoh at the time of the prediction.,  It was fulfilled 18 years later in 568 BC during the reign of Pharaoh Amasis.

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Pharaoh AMASIS who was defeated by Nebchazneddar

JEREMIAH 51:59, 61 ~ This is the message that Jeremiah gave to the officer Seraiah. Seraiah was the son of  Neriah. Neriah was the son of Mahseiah. Seraiah went to Babylon with Zedekiah king of Judah. This happened in the fourth year that Zedekiah was king of Judah. At that time, Jeremiah gave this message to Seraiah, the officer….Jeremiah said to Seraiah, “Seraiah, go to Babylon. Be sure to read this message so all the people can hear you. = رمياء الفصل 51

59 اَلأَمْرُ الَّذِي أَوْصَى بِهِ إِرْمِيَا النَّبِيُّ سَرَايَا بْنَ نِيرِيَّا بْنِ مَحْسِيَّا عِنْدَ ذَهَابِهِ مَعَ صِدْقِيَّا مَلِكِ يَهُوذَا إِلَى بَابِلَ فِي السَّنَةِ الرَّابِعَةِ لِمُلْكِهِ. (وَكَانَ سَرَايَا رَئِيسَ الْمَحَلَّةِ)

61 وَقَالَ إِرْمِيَا لِسَرَايَا: [إِذَا دَخَلْتَ إِلَى بَابِلَ وَنَظَرْتَ وَقَرَأْتَ كُلَّ هَذَا الْكَلاَمِ

Seraiah’s seal has also been found, it is inscribed with the following words: “Seriahu, son of Neriahu”.  He was Jeremiah’s scribe’s (Barach’s) brother.  See above under his father, Neriahu.

Neriah Seal

Seal of Seraiah, son of Neriahu


EZEKIEL 25:5 ~ “‘I will make the city Rabbah a pasture for camels and the country of Ammon a sheep pen. Then you will know that I am the Lord. = حزقيال الفصل 25

5  وَأَجْعَلُ [رَبَّةَ» مَنَاخاً لِلإِبِلِ, وَبَنِي عَمُّونَ مَرْبِضاً لِلْغَنَمِ, فَتَعْلَمُونَ أَنِّي أَنَا الرَّبُّ.

Rabbath/Rabbath is the ancient name for today’s city of Amman, Jordan.  It was the capital of Moab.   Tel Al Umeiri, is located just three miles south of Amman. A four-room house dating back to around 2000 BC has been found here.  In 1984, a seal impression was discovered “Belonging to Milkom, the servant of Baalyassa.”  This King Baalyassa seal is shown above in “Jeremiah” and date to around 600 BC.  In Rabbath-Ammon itself, a building inscription was found dating to around 900 BC.

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Ruins of Rabbath in today’s Jordan

Up until the time of Nebuchadnezzar, Moab was a progressive nation.  But there was a period of time when Persia ruled the world, that Moab disappeared from historical records of that time. Its territory was overrun by waves of tribes from northern Arabia, But during the time of Greek world domination, they were building back.  Today, Rabbath/Rabbath/Ammon has a population of some 3 million people

EZEKIEL 27:8 ~ Men from Sidon and Arvad rowed your boats for you. = حزقيال الفصل 27

8  أَهْلُ صَيْدُونَ وَإِرْوَادَ كَانُوا مَلاَّحِيكِ. حُكَمَاؤُكِ يَا صُورُ الَّذِينَ كَانُوا فِيكِ هُمْ رَبَابِينُكِ.

Sidon was and is a seaport of Phoenecia, later called Lebanon.  It is located on a 20-mile-wide strip between the Lebanon Mountains and Mediterranean Sea.  It became famous for its embroider, metal and glass work, as well as maritime skills.  Sidon was rich famous centuries ago, and was written about among the first few books of the Bible and by Homer.  Eventually it fell drastically in influence and power and population.  However, it has returned to become a modern city.

Phoenecian ship

Relief of ancient Phoenecian ship in Beirut National Museum

Arvad was also called Arwad and was and is an island city off the coast of Syria some 30 miles North of Tripoli.  It had a powerful navy, and its ships are mentioned in the monuments of Egypt and Assyria.   It is also mentioned in the Tell Amarna Letters as helping the Amorites attacks Egyptian possessions in Syria (44 and 28, B.M. Tell el-Amarna Letters).  Tiglath-pileser I (c. 1020) boasts that he sailed in the ships of Arvad. 200 men of Arvad are mentioned among the allies of Benhadad, of Damascus against Shalmaneser II (c. 854).  Today it is occupied by fishermen, boat builders and tourists.


EZEKIEL 27:21 ~ Arabia and all the leaders of Kedar traded lambs, rams, and goats for your goods. = حزقيال الفصل 27

21 اَلْعَرَبُ وَكُلُّ رُؤَسَاءِ قِيدَارَ هُمْ تُجَّارُ يَدِكِ بِالْخِرْفَانِ وَالْكِبَاشِ وَالأَعْتِدَةِ. فِي هَذِهِ كَانُوا تُجَّارَكِ.

Kedar is also Qedar, Qi-idra, or Qadra.  Kedar was a large well-organized nomadic tribe in Northern Arabia that around the 6th century BC controlled the Sinai Peninsula to the Persian Gulf.  Kedar/Qedar was very influential in Arabia and apparently descended from Ishmael.

Kedarites on camels pursued by Assyrians. Panel from N. Palace of Ashurbanipal

Kedarites in battle on camels

The first mention of them is on a stele (c. 737 BC) of Assyrian King Tiglath-Pileser III listing leaders from the western part of Mesopatamia that paid him tribute, including Qedar. The annals of King Sennacherib of Assyria mention Kedar/Qedar and Elam allied against him in his first campaign in 703 BC.  The conquest of Kedar/Qedar by Sennacherib in 690 BC  mentioned in the annals of the Assyrian monarchs.  

An engraved series of panels from the palace of Assyrian King Ashurbanipal (c. 668-627 BC) showing Assyrians pursuing Arab Qedarites on camels. Above is one of those panels.
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Kedar tents today

Often Kedar/Qedar and Arabia were interchangeable.  King Hazael, who ruled c. 690–676 BC, is described as a Qedarite king by Assyrian King Ashurbanipal, and “king of the Arabs” by Assyrian King Esarhaddon.

EZEKIEL 27:23 ~ Haran.…the merchants of…Asshur…traded with you. = حزقيال الفصل 27

23 حُرَّانُ وَكِنَّةُ وَعَدَنُ تُجَّارُ شَبَا وَأَشُّورَ وَكِلْمَدَ تُجَّارُكِ.

HARAN:  Harran is in southeast Turkey near the Syrian border, 24 miles southeast of Urfa and on the Balikh River.  It was founded around 2500 BC and became a major commercial, cultural, and religious center.  This was where Abraham lived after he left Ur.  It was located on the road that ran from Nineveh to Carchemish and important to the Assyrian kings. Its chief deity in Assyrian times was that of the moon god.  Reconstructions of their typical cone-shaped houses are available for viewing.  (Top picture on the right)

Harran Cone Houses

Harran cone houses

ASSHUR:  Asshur was the earliest capital of ancient Assyria. The remains of the city are situated on the western bank of river Tigris, north of the tributary Little Zab, .For over 2000 years successive kings built and rebuilt the fortifications, temple and palace complexes.  More than 16,000 cuneiform tablets have been uncovered there. Many relics are at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.  It is 60 miles South of today’s Mosul, Iraq in the Al-Shirqat District.  (Bottom picture on the right)

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Ruins of Ashur

EZEKIEL 29:10 ~ The cities will be empty from Migdol to Aswan, and as far as the border of Ethiopia. = حزقيال الفصل 29

10  لِذَلِكَ هَئَنَذَا عَلَيْكَ وَعَلَى أَنْهَارِكَ, وَأَجْعَلُ أَرْضَ مِصْرَ خِرَباً خَرِبَةً مُقْفِرَةً مِنْ مَجْدَلَ إِلَى أَسْوَانَ إِلَى تُخُمِ كُوشَ.

MIGDOL is discussed in the history section under Ezra.  
ASWAN is discussed in the history section under Ezra.


DANIEL 2:1, 38-41, 44-45, 48  ~ During Nebuchadnezzar’s second year as king, he had some dreams. Those dreams bothered him and he could not sleep…..31“King [said Daniel], in your dream you saw a large statue in front of you…. = دانيال الفصل 2
1  وَفِي السَّنَةِ الثَّانِيَةِ مِنْ مُلْكِ نَبُوخَذْنَصَّرَ حَلُمَ نَبُوخَذْنَصَّرُ أَحْلاَماً فَانْزَعَجَتْ رُوحُهُ وَطَارَ عَنْهُ نَوْمُهُ.
[BABYLONIAN EMPIRE 606-539 BC] “God has made you ruler over them all. King Nebuchadnezzar, you are that head of gold on the statue. = دانيال الفصل 2
38 وَحَيْثُمَا يَسْكُنُ بَنُو الْبَشَرِ وَوُحُوشُ الْبَرِّ وَطُيُورُ السَّمَاءِ دَفَعَهَا لِيَدِكَ وَسَلَّطَكَ عَلَيْهَا جَمِيعِهَا. فَأَنْتَ هَذَا الرَّأْسُ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ.
39 وَبَعْدَكَ تَقُومُ مَمْلَكَةٌ أُخْرَى أَصْغَرُ مِنْكَ وَمَمْلَكَةٌ ثَالِثَةٌ أُخْرَى مِنْ نُحَاسٍ فَتَتَسَلَّطُ عَلَى كُلِّ الأَرْضِ.
40 وَتَكُونُ مَمْلَكَةٌ رَابِعَةٌ صَلِبَةٌ كَالْحَدِيدِ لأَنَّ الْحَدِيدَ يَدُقُّ وَيَسْحَقُ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ. وَكَالْحَدِيدِ الَّذِي يُكَسِّرُ تَسْحَقُ وَتُكَسِّرُ كُلَّ هَؤُلاَءِ.
41 وَبِمَا رَأَيْتَ الْقَدَمَيْنِ وَالأَصَابِعَ بَعْضُهَا مِنْ خَزَفٍ وَالْبَعْضُ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ فَالْمَمْلَكَةُ تَكُونُ مُنْقَسِمَةً وَيَكُونُ فِيهَا قُوَّةُ الْحَدِيدِ مِنْ حَيْثُ إِنَّكَ رَأَيْتَ الْحَدِيدَ مُخْتَلِطاً بِخَزَفِ الطِّينِ.

[MEDO-PERSIAN EMPIRE 539-331 BC] 39“Another kingdom will come after you— {that is the silver part}. But that kingdom will not be as great as your kingdom. = دانيال الفصل 2

41 وَبِمَا رَأَيْتَ الْقَدَمَيْنِ وَالأَصَابِعَ بَعْضُهَا مِنْ خَزَفٍ وَالْبَعْضُ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ فَالْمَمْلَكَةُ تَكُونُ مُنْقَسِمَةً وَيَكُونُ فِيهَا قُوَّةُ الْحَدِيدِ مِنْ حَيْثُ إِنَّكَ رَأَيْتَ الْحَدِيدَ مُخْتَلِطاً بِخَزَفِ الطِّينِ.
42 وَأَصَابِعُ الْقَدَمَيْنِ بَعْضُهَا مِنْ حَدِيدٍ وَالْبَعْضُ مِنْ خَزَفٍ فَبَعْضُ الْمَمْلَكَةِ يَكُونُ قَوِيّاً وَالْبَعْضُ قَصِماً.
43 وَبِمَا رَأَيْتَ الْحَدِيدَ مُخْتَلِطاً بِخَزَفِ الطِّينِ فَإِنَّهُمْ يَخْتَلِطُونَ بِنَسْلِ النَّاسِ وَلَكِنْ لاَ يَتَلاَصَقُ هَذَا بِذَاكَ كَمَا أَنَّ الْحَدِيدَ لاَ يَخْتَلِطُ بِالْخَزَفِ.
44 وَفِي أَيَّامِ هَؤُلاَءِ الْمُلُوكِ يُقِيمُ إِلَهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ مَمْلَكَةً لَنْ تَنْقَرِضَ أَبَداً وَمَلِكُهَا لاَ يُتْرَكُ لِشَعْبٍ آخَرَ وَتَسْحَقُ وَتُفْنِي كُلَّ هَذِهِ الْمَمَالِكِ وَهِيَ تَثْبُتُ إِلَى الأَبَدِ.
45 لأَنَّكَ رَأَيْتَ أَنَّهُ قَدْ قُطِعَ حَجَرٌ مِنْ جَبَلٍ لاَ بِيَدَيْنِ فَسَحَقَ الْحَدِيدَ وَالنُّحَاسَ وَالْخَزَفَ وَالْفِضَّةَ وَالذَّهَبَ. اللَّهُ الْعَظِيمُ قَدْ عَرَّفَ الْمَلِكَ مَا سَيَأْتِي بَعْدَ هَذَا. الْحُلْمُ حَقٌّ وَتَعْبِيرُهُ يَقِينٌ].

[GRECIAN EMPIRE 331-169 BC] Next, a third kingdom will rule over the earth—that is the bronze part. = دانيال الفصل 2 
48 حِينَئِذٍ عَظَّمَ الْمَلِكُ دَانِيآلَ وَأَعْطَاهُ عَطَايَا كَثِيرَةً وَسَلَّطَهُ عَلَى كُلِّ وِلاَيَةِ بَابِلَ وَجَعَلَهُ رَئِيسَ الشِّحَنِ عَلَى جَمِيعِ حُكَمَاءِ بَابِلَ.
Nebuchadnezzar's Statue

[ROMAN EMPIRE 169 BC-476 AD] Then there will be a fourth kingdom. That kingdom will be strong like iron. Iron breaks and smashes things to pieces.  In the same way, that fourth kingdom will smash and break all the other kingdoms….The toes of the statue were partly iron and partly clay. So the fourth kingdom will be partly strong like iron, and partly weak like clay….the people of the fourth kingdom will be a mixture. Those people will not be united as one people.


44“During the time of the kings {of the fourth kingdom}, the God of heaven will set up another kingdom. This kingdom will continue forever! It will never be destroyed! And it will be the kind of kingdom that can’t be passed on to another group of people…. 45“King Nebuchadnezzar, you saw a rock-cut from a mountain—but no person cut that rock! The rock broke the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver, and the gold to pieces. In this way, God showed you what will happen in the future….

DANIEL 3:1 ~ King Nebuchadnezzar had a gold idol made. That idol was 60 cubits [27 meters, 88 feet]  high and 6 cubits [2.7 meters, 8′ 10″] wide.  Then he set the idol up on the plain of Dura in the province of Babylon. = دانيال الفصل 3

1  نَبُوخَذْنَصَّرُ الْمَلِكُ صَنَعَ تِمْثَالاً مِنْ ذَهَبٍ طُولُهُ سِتُّونَ ذِرَاعاً وَعَرْضُهُ سِتُّ أَذْرُعٍ وَنَصَبَهُ فِي بُقْعَةِ دُورَا فِي وِلاَيَةِ بَابِلَ.

Was it possible to build such a tall statue around 600 BC?  The statues of Amenhotep III in Luxor, Egypt, are 60 feet high and completed c. 1340 BC.  The seated Ramesses statues in Abu Simbel, Egypt, are 70′ high and completed c. 1265 BC.  The Obelisk of Hatshepsut in Karnak, Egypt, is 97 feet high and 6 feet wide, and completed around 1460 BC.
Nabu-Natnl Museum of Iraq

Nabu, God & Son of Marduk

DANIEL 5:1-2 ~ King Belshazzar gave a big party for 1,000 of his officials. The king was drinking winewith them. As Belshazzar was drinking his wine, he ordered his servants to bring the gold and silver cups. These were the cups that his grandfather Nebuchadnezzar had taken from the temple in Jerusalem. King Belshazzar wanted his royal people, his wives and his women slaves to drink from those cups. = دانيال الفصل 5

1  بَيْلْشَاصَّرُ الْمَلِكُ صَنَعَ وَلِيمَةً عَظِيمَةً لِعُظَمَائِهِ الأَلْفِ وَشَرِبَ خَمْراً قُدَّامَ الأَلْفِ.
2  وَإِذْ كَانَ بَيْلْشَاصَّرُ يَذُوقُ الْخَمْرَ أَمَرَ بِإِحْضَارِ آنِيَةِ الذَّهَبِ وَالْفِضَّةِ الَّتِي أَخْرَجَهَا نَبُوخَذْنَصَّرُ أَبُوهُ مِنَ الْهَيْكَلِ الَّذِي فِي أُورُشَلِيمَ لِيَشْرَبَ بِهَا الْمَلِكُ وَعُظَمَاؤُهُ وَزَوْجَاتُهُ وَسَرَارِيهِ.

Belshazzar’s father was Nabo-Nidus (Nabu-Na’id).  King Nabu-Nidus’ patron god was Sin.  He repaired temples to the gods Esagila, Ezida, and Egis-nugal in three cities.  In Ur, he repaired the ziggurat of Egišnugal, and buried a cylindar dedicating his repairs of all three temples to his favorite god, Sin.  It is on display at the British Museum in London.  It reads in part as follows:


Nabu-Nidus Cylindar-British Museum

Nabo-Nidus cylindar in British Museum

“O Sin, my lord ‘gods’, king of the gods of heaven and the netherworld, ‘gods’ of the gods, who dwells in the great heavens, when you joyfully enter that temple, may good recommendations for Esagila, Ezida. Egišnugal, the temples of your great godhead….As for me, Nabonidus, king of Babylon, save me from sinning against your great godhead and grant me as a present a life long of days, and as for Belshazzar, the eldest son – my offspring- instill reverence for your great godhead in his heart and may he not commit any religious mistake, may he be sated with a life of plenitude.”

But the patron god of Babylon was Marduk.  The priests of Marduk led an uprising, so King Nabu-Nidus made his son, Belshazzar, coregent, then went into self-imposed exile in Arabia.  British Museum tablet 38299 states:


Nabo-Nidus Worshipping sun, moon, stars

Nabu-Nidus worshipping sun, moon, planets, British Museum


“[Nabonidus] entrusted the army  to his oldest son, his first born, the troops in the country he ordered under his command. He let everything go, entrusted the kingship (Akk. šarrûtu) to him, and, himself, he started out for a long journey.”

DANIEL 5:1,5,28 ~ King Belshazzar gave a big party for 1,000 of his officials. The king was drinking wine with them.  Then all of a sudden, a man’s hand appeared and began writing on the wall. The fingers scratched words into the plaster on the wall. The hand wrote on the wall there in the king’s house near the lampstand. The king was watching the hand as it wrote ….”Your kingdom is being taken from you It will be divided among the Medes and Persians.” دانيال الفصل 5

1  بَيْلْشَاصَّرُ الْمَلِكُ صَنَعَ وَلِيمَةً عَظِيمَةً لِعُظَمَائِهِ الأَلْفِ وَشَرِبَ خَمْراً قُدَّامَ الأَلْفِ.

5  فِي تِلْكَ السَّاعَةِ ظَهَرَتْ أَصَابِعُ يَدِ إِنْسَانٍ وَكَتَبَتْ بِإِزَاءِ النِّبْرَاسِ عَلَى مُكَلَّسِ حَائِطِ قَصْرِ الْمَلِكِ وَالْمَلِكُ يَنْظُرُ طَرَفَ الْيَدِ الْكَاتِبَةِ.

28 [فَرْسِ] قُسِمَتْ مَمْلَكَتُكَ وَأُعْطِيَتْ لِمَادِي وَفَارِسَ].

Much of the Babylon ruins remain today, having been excavated by German archaeologists.  The walls of the palace where the message appeared to Belshazzar are still there.

Gate Into Babylon-Pergamum Museum

Gate into Babylon (Pergamom Museum)

DANIEL 5:29 ~ Then Belshazzar gave an order for Daniel to be dressed in purple clothes. A gold chain was put around his neck, and he was announced to be the third highest ruler in the kingdom. = دانيال الفصل 5

29 حِينَئِذٍ أَمَرَ بَيْلْشَاصَّرُ أَنْ يُلْبِسُوا دَانِيآلَ الأَرْجُوانَ وَقِلاَدَةً مِنْ ذَهَبٍ فِي عُنُقِهِ وَيُنَادُوا عَلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ يَكُونُ مُتَسَلِّطاً ثَالِثاً فِي الْمَمْلَكَةِ.

Daniel was rewarded by King Belshazzar for being the only one who could decipher the writing on the wall.  As arranged, he was dressed as royalty and became third highest ruler.  His father, Nabu-Nidus, was still alive in Arabia, but king in name only.  Balshazzar was king in deed.  So that would make Daniel the third highest ruler of Babylon.

DANIEL 5:30-31; 6:28; 9:1 ~ That very same night, Belshazzar, king of the Babylonian people, was killed. A man named Darius the Mede became the new king (governor?). Darius was about 62 years old….So Daniel was successful during the time that Darius was king and during the time that Cyrus the Persian was king….These things happened during the first year that Darius was king. Darius was the son of a man named  Ahasuerus. Darius belonged to the Median people. He became king over Babylon. = دانيال الفصل 5 – دانيال الفصل 6 – دانيال الفصل 9

30 فِي تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةِ قُتِلَ بَيْلْشَاصَّرُ مَلِكُ الْكِلْدَانِيِّينَ
31 فَأَخَذَ الْمَمْلَكَةَ دَارِيُوسُ الْمَادِيُّ وَهُوَ ابْنُ اثْنَتَيْنِ وَسِتِّينَ سَنَةً.

28 فَنَجَحَ دَانِيآلُ هَذَا فِي مُلْكِ دَارِيُوسَ وَفِي مُلْكِ كُورَشَ الْفَارِسِيِّ.

1  فِي السَّنَةِ الأُولَى لِدَارِيُوسَ بْنِ أَحْشَوِيرُوشَ مِنْ نَسْلِ الْمَادِيِّينَ الَّذِي مُلِّكَ عَلَى مَمْلَكَةِ الْكِلْدَانِيِّينَ


Ruins of Babylon

Ruins of BABYLON the Great, 50 miles south of today’s Bagdad

Notice that Darius was a Mede and Cyrus a Persian.  Nothing is known yet about this Darius, but this wise old man apparently directed Babylon when the Medes and Persians were first uniting.  We do know that Cyrus had taken control of Babylon by his third year (Daniel 10:1).  The Nabu-Nidas Chronicle (part of the Babylonian Chronicles) tells of the night Cyrus’ troops conquered the city without any bloodshed.  It is on display at the British Museum in London.

Nabu-Nidus Cylindar-British Museum

Nebu-Nidas Chronicle, British Museum

“When Cyrus attacked the army of Akkad in Opis [i.e., Baghdad] on the Tigris….The sixteenth day, Gobryas [litt: Ugbaru], the governor of Gutium, and the army of Cyrus entered Babylon without battle.  Afterward, Nabonidus was arrested in Babylon when he returned there…..but nobody carried arms in Esagila [Babylon] and its buildings.”



HOSEA 2:8, 17; 11:2 ~ But the Israelites used this silver and gold to make statues of Baal….I will take away the names of the Baals out of her mouth. Then people will not use the Baals’ names again….The Israelites gave sacrifices to the Baals.  They burned incense to the idols. = هوشع الفصل 2 – هوشع الفصل 11
8  «وَهِيَ لَمْ تَعْرِفْ أَنِّي أَنَا أَعْطَيْتُهَا الْقَمْحَ وَالْمِسْطَارَ وَالزَّيْتَ وَكَثَّرْتُ لَهَا فِضَّةً وَذَهَباً جَعَلُوهُ لِبَعْلٍ.
17 وَأَنْزِعُ أَسْمَاءَ الْبَعْلِيمِ مِنْ فَمِهَا فَلاَ تُذْكَرُ أَيْضاً بِأَسْمَائِهَا.
2  كُلَّ مَا دَعُوهُمْ ذَهَبُوا مِنْ أَمَامِهِمْ يَذْبَحُونَ لِلْبَعْلِيمِ وَيُبَخِّرُونَ لِلتَّمَاثِيلِ الْمَنْحُوتَةِ.
Baal-Silver and Gold

Silver & Gold statue of Ba’al in Louvre Museum, Paris

The term Ba’al simply means lord, so to worship Ba’al means to worship any lord, whether man or god, of one’s choosing.  Since productivity of families and fields prevailed for one’s survival in agricultural societies, any god that influenced this was popular.  To “worship” them often mean prostitute “priestesses”.  Other practices were violent and ecstatic exercises and even cutting oneself.  In some cases, human sacrifice was practiced.    Worship of the Ba’als was often so terrible, that eventually the word came to mean demon, not god.  


Ras Shamra Ruins

Excavation of Ras Shamra in 1933

Archaeological digs at Ras Shamra (Ugarit in Philistia) and Ebla uncovered much about Syrian gods as well as the demon  Ba‘al Zebûb, god of the underworld. They uncovered a statue of Ba’al which is now on display at the Louvre in Paris.



JONAH 1:3 ~ Jonah did not want to obey God,} so Jonah tried to run away from the Lord. Jonah went to Joppa. = يونان الفصل 1

3  فَقَامَ يُونَانُ لِيَهْرُبَ إِلَى تَرْشِيشَ مِنْ وَجْهِ الرَّبِّ فَنَزَلَ إِلَى يَافَا وَوَجَدَ سَفِينَةً ذَاهِبَةً إِلَى تَرْشِيشَ فَدَفَعَ أُجْرَتَهَا وَنَزَلَ فِيهَا لِيَذْهَبَ مَعَهُمْ إِلَى تَرْشِيشَ مِنْ وَجْهِ الرَّبِّ.

Joppa existed as a city as early as the 15th century BC.  It is the center of an Egyptian epic written with the hero of the tale being the great conqueror Thut-Mose III.  It is called “The Taking of Joppa“.  It is recorded on Papyrus Harris 500 in the possession of the British Museum in London, and on file with them as P 10060.

Joppa is also mentioned in the Amarna Letters of the early 14th century.  These letters are explained in more detail in the Bible History archaeological section.

Taking of Joppa in Harris Papyrus, British Museum

Taking of Joppa Epic, British Museum

JONAH 3:1-5, 7-10 ~ Then the Lord spoke to Jonah again. The Lord said, “Go to that big city Nineveh, and preach the things that I tell you.” So Jonah obeyed the Lord and went to Nineveh. Nineveh was a very big city. A person had to walk for three days to travel through the city. Jonah went to the center of the city and began preaching to the people. Jonah said, “After 40 days, Nineveh will be destroyed!” The people of Nineveh believed {the message from} God….. The king sent this message through the city… People must cry loudly to God. Every person must change his life and stop doing bad things. Then maybe God will change and not do the things he had planned….God saw the things the people did. God saw that the people stopped doing evil things.  So God changed and did not do what he planned. God did not punish the people. = يونان الفصل 3

1  ثُمَّ صَارَ قَوْلُ الرَّبِّ إِلَى يُونَانَ ثَانِيَةً:
2  «قُمِ اذْهَبْ إِلَى نِينَوَى الْمَدِينَةِ الْعَظِيمَةِ وَنَادِ لَهَا الْمُنَادَاةَ الَّتِي أَنَا مُكَلِّمُكَ بِهَا».
3  فَقَامَ يُونَانُ وَذَهَبَ إِلَى نِينَوَى بِحَسَبِ قَوْلِ الرَّبِّ. أَمَّا نِينَوَى فَكَانَتْ مَدِينَةً عَظِيمَةً لِلَّهِ مَسِيرَةَ ثَلاَثَةِ أَيَّامٍ.
4  فَابْتَدَأَ يُونَانُ يَدْخُلُ الْمَدِينَةَ مَسِيرَةَ يَوْمٍ وَاحِدٍ وَنَادَى: «بَعْدَ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً تَنْقَلِبُ نِينَوَى».
5  فَآمَنَ أَهْلُ نِينَوَى بِاللَّهِ وَنَادُوا بِصَوْمٍ وَلَبِسُوا مُسُوحاً مِنْ كَبِيرِهِمْ إِلَى صَغِيرِهِمْ.

7  وَنُودِيَ فِي نِينَوَى عَنْ أَمْرِ الْمَلِكِ وَعُظَمَائِهِ: «لاَ تَذُقِ النَّاسُ وَلاَ الْبَهَائِمُ وَلاَ الْبَقَرُ وَلاَ الْغَنَمُ شَيْئاً. لاَ تَرْعَ وَلاَ تَشْرَبْ مَاءً.
8  وَلْيَتَغَطَّ بِمُسُوحٍ النَّاسُ وَالْبَهَائِمُ وَيَصْرُخُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ بِشِدَّةٍ وَيَرْجِعُوا كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ عَنْ طَرِيقِهِ الرَّدِيئَةِ وَعَنِ الظُّلْمِ الَّذِي فِي أَيْدِيهِمْ
9  لَعَلَّ اللَّهَ يَعُودُ وَيَنْدَمُ وَيَرْجِعُ عَنْ حُمُوِّ غَضَبِهِ فَلاَ نَهْلِكَ».
10  فَلَمَّا رَأَى اللَّهُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ أَنَّهُمْ رَجَعُوا عَنْ طَرِيقِهِمِ الرَّدِيئَةِ نَدِمَ اللَّهُ عَلَى الشَّرِّ الَّذِي تَكَلَّمَ أَنْ يَصْنَعَهُ بِهِمْ فَلَمْ يَصْنَعْهُ. اَلأَصْحَاحُ الرَّابِعُ


Nineveh Ruins

Ruins of Nineveh in today’s Mosul, Iraq

Nineveh was the capital of the Assyrian Empire.  Today, Nineveh’s location is marked by two large mounds, Kouyunjik and Nabī Yūnus “Prophet Jonah”,   The ruins of Nineveh are surrounded by the remains of a massive stone and mud brick wall dating from about 700 BC. About 20 miles long and 20 feet high.  Every 60 feet there was a watchtower.  The wall had 15 gates in and out of the city.

Jonah warned the city to repent (and they did) around 775 BC.  Nineveh finally fell in 612 BC.  Other than excavations of one of its two mounds decades ago, no other excavations have been allowed.  The same is true of Babylon.  However, the government of Iraq and scholars do agree these are the mounds that once was Nineveh.


The rest of the Old Testament covers cities and kingdoms

already proven in previous Old Testament books.